Killing off bacteria might seem like a good thing. "Your immediate thought is, 'well, that's good, because they're not supposed to be there anyways," said Mercyhurst College microbiologist Steve Mauro, whose team found fluoxetine in low doses in water near Lake Erie's beaches. "But what about all the other bacteria that are supposed to be there and part of that ecosystem?"Prozac Killing E. coli in the Great Lakes (Thanks, Marilyn! via boing)
Treating clean lake water with similar strength doses killed off E. coli and enterococcus bacteria, both of which can cause serious infections in humans.
The fluoxetine found in Lake Erie is at very low levels--about one nanogram per liter of water, Mauro said. "It doesn't appear to be at a level that would be harmful to humans," or invertebrates, for that matter, though Mauro suspects that fluoxetine combined with other chemicals could be having a cumulative effect on the lake's ecosystem.
May 31, 2011
If China could divide its available fertilizers better among its provinces, it could produce 52 million tons more grain. This would enable China to tackle its growing demand for food and animal feed within its own borders.
This is the result of a study conducted by Xiaobin Wang of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS) and the Wageningen UR agrotechnologist Willem Hoogmoed, as reported in this month's Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture.
In the wealthy eastern part of China, farmers spread more than 180 kilogrammes of nitrogen on each hectare of their land. Excessive amounts of nitrogen cannot be absorbed by the crops; instead, they pollute the groundwater and the air. In the poorer western part of China, nitrogen use is below 100 and even 50 kilogrammes per hectare per year. If the eastern provinces were to limit their fertilizer use to 180 kilogrammes per year, the remainder - 1.2 million tons of nitrogen - could go to the poorer agriculture areas. That would result in additional grain production of 52 million tons, Wang calculates.
That would make quite a difference in the global grain market. For comparison, China currently produces about 500 million tons of grain annually, and the European Union produces about 130 million tons. The inefficient use of nitrogen is one of the major limiting factors in food supply in China, writes Wang.
While some power companies offer devices allowing homeowners to monitor their energy usage, [Paul’s] did not. After a bit of research however, he was ready to build a power monitoring system of his own. He found that his meter emits a small infrared pulse every time a watt-hour of electricity is consumed, so his system counts how many flashes occur to measure usage.
The counting circuit is pretty simple consisting of only an AVR, a resistor, a capacitor, and a phototransistor. The data is fed to a computer where the results are graphed with gnuplot.
It’s quite a useful little hack, and undoubtedly far cheaper than purchasing a whole house power monitor.
May 30, 2011
May 29, 2011
"It comes from everywhere. It comes from eastern Europe; it comes from Russia. Just don't pick on the Chinese; it's everywhere."
"The attacks on companies, and going after IP and other things, is pretty big, so we're all very careful in this space."
Because, "doing what has already been done" seems like a bad way to invest $400 Million or Billion$$$
My idea was free... with a 13month ROI and lifetime EEROI
Google Blog - The site of the Alta Wind Energy Center (AWEC), which will generate 1,550 megawatts (MW) of energy when complete, making it one of the largest sites in the country for wind energy generation—enough to power 450,000 homes. Renewable energy developer Terra-Gen Power is constructing the site in several phases and we’ll provide $55 million to finance the 102 MW Alta IV project. Citibank, which has underwritten the equity for Alta Projects II-V, is also investing in this project.
We’re always looking for projects that are uniquely positioned to transform our energy sector. As part of the new 4,500 MW Tehachapi Renewable Transmission Project (TRTP), AWEC uses some of the first transmission lines developed specifically to transport renewable energy from remote, resource-rich areas (like the Mojave) to major population centers... With this deal, we’ve now invested more than $400 million in the clean energy sector. We hope AWEC’s success, with its unique deal structure and renewable energy transmission, encourages more financing and development of renewables that will usher in a new energy future.
Good Energies and Read the full story from a Hugger
Seriously Google Investors...
HAASE - I have great respect for your massive investments in clean energy, but would rather see it continue for the long haul or it is just another "Jimmy Carter Solar Comment"
A organization would prove through actions to our Administration that we can save our economy, energy and environmental future by "fiscally proving sustainable energy is economically sustainable". And when they want to make decades of energy efforts a reality and financially sustainable.... they will give me a call. "
Only two things are infinite, the universe and human stupidity, and I'm not sure about the former." - Albert Einstein
It is estimated that 40% of the food produced in America is wasted; it amounts to 1400 calories per person every day. According to the EPA, 31 million tons is thrown into landfills. Much of that produces methane as it rots; the gas is 25 times more potent a greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide. The UK website Next Generation Food estimates that each tonne of food waste is equivalent to 4.2 tonnes of CO2. They conclude that if we simply stopped wasting food, it would be the equivalent of taking a quarter of all the cars in America off the road.
The numbers are extraordinary:
In the US, a report in Plos One at the end of last year found that per capita food waste has progressively increased by 50 percent since 1974 reaching more than 1400 calories per person per day or 150 trillion calories per year. Food waste now accounts for more than one quarter of the total freshwater consumption and 300 million barrels of oil per year.
The consumption of water and fossil fuel making food that is thrown out, the 150 trillion calories per year, landfilled, that could have fed people around the world, the statistics just pile up.
It seems that so many of our problems, from energy independence to climate change to world hunger to water, could be significantly mitigated if we could just get control of our food system and stop wasting so much.See the entire infographic here .
Along with being part of the upcoming green celebrity baby boom, Jessica Alba is also the celebrity spokeswoman for Safer Chemicals, Healthy Families -- and she took her anti-toxin message on the road this week when she joined Senator Frank Lautenberg (D-NJ) at media briefing in Washington, D.C. She was there to support an overhaul of the Toxic Substances Control Act, which regulates the government's control of chemicals.
"Like many other moms out there, I try to buy safe products for my family, but that can't be the only solution," NPR quotes Alba as saying. "You can't hire a team of scientists to do your shopping for you. At some point the government has to step in and ensure that chemicals are safe before our children are exposed to them." Read more
May 28, 2011
Engineers are making strides toward cars that can use their own waste for energy, testing BMW, Chevrolet and Ford vehicles outfitted with heat-collecting devices that can improve fuel economy.
In most vehicles, around 40 percent of gasoline energy is wasted as heat - you have to burn gas to make the car go, but there's no way to capture the radiant heat of the act of combustion. Exhaust gases can reach 1,300° F. Thermoelectric devices integrated into a car's exhaust system could capture this heat, but it's difficult to design generators that can withstand the huge temperature differential required to produce a current.
Improved devices that use rare earth metals and super-strong alloys could produce a few hundred watts of energy, improving fuel economy by 3 percent, according to initial tests at General Motors.
Technology Review reports on efforts at BSST, a thermoelectric-device maker in California, and at GM's research labs in Michigan. BSST is testing compounds made of hafnium and zirconium, which can withstand the high temperature differential. GM's project is getting out of the lab, where we first saw it last fall, and into a Chevy Suburban. GM's thermoelectric research has centered on skutterudites, cobalt arsenide minerals doped with rare earth elements like ytterbium.
Computer models show the device could generate 350 to 600 watts for city and highway driving, respectively. This equates to a 3 percent improvement in fuel economy, according to GM. That's not great for a system that requires expensive and difficult-to-obtain rare earth metals, but further testing could yield even better mineral formulas with even greater efficiency.
In its first tests this spring, GM sliced out a section of a Suburban's tailpipe and welded in the thermoelectric device, which looks like a muffler. GM scientist Gregory Meisner tells Technology Review the next design would be better integrated into the vehicle's exhaust system, rather than added at the back end.
It could still take a few years for the devices to be integrated into new cars, Meisner said. GM's goal is to achieve 10 percent improvement in fuel economy by 2015 without increasing emissions.
The trucks are constructed from ABS plastic, a lightweight and rugged material that reduces the weight of these vehicles by around 1,000 pounds, compared to the usual sheet metal. Trucks of this size typically weigh around five tons, depending on the packages being delivered. The plastic body has a few other benefits as well. Painted sheet metal is both heavy (the paint alone can weigh about 100 pounds!) and fragile--a slight dent or nick makes the metal beneath the paint visible, at which point UPS has to service the truck to keep it looking fresh. But this plastic is brown all the way through, so it can suffer dents without looking mangled.
There are a few other thoughtful elements to the new design, like switching all lights (besides headlights, for some reason) to more efficient LEDs, and a nearly modular design that allows for various parts (bumpers, side panels) to be replaced easily, quickly, and cheaply. Those adjustments make the new truck efficient enough that the typical 200-hp engine could be replaced with a sprightly 150-hp engine without losing power.
The important thing here is that this prototype is actually cost-effective, right now. It's not as exciting an advancement as, say, a fleet of hydrogen-powered trucks or cars made of hemp, but unlike a fleet of hydrogen-powered trucks, there's a legitimate chance of immediate adoption. The prototypes are undergoing testing this year, and provided they're found road-worthy, could start hitting the road in 2012.
[via Fast Company]
Cool has introduced Zuckerberg to nearby farmers and advised him as he killed his first chicken, pig, and goat. "He cut the throat of the goat with a knife, which is the most kind way to do it," says Cool.Zuckerberg and his longtime girlfriend, Priscilla, have been cooking what he slaughters, eating what many people would not dare consume. He recently ate a chicken, including the heart and liver, and used the feet to make stock. ... the only meat I'm eating is from animals I've killed myself. So far, this has been a good experience. I'm eating a lot healthier foods and I've learned a lot about sustainable farming and raising of animals.
Haase - Every taxpayer in America already owes more than $128,000 as their share of the $14.2 trillion national debt. Every child born in America today is greeted with more than $46,000 that they owe as their share of the national debt.
This is expected to more than triple by the time they enter the workforce.
Mortgaging the future of our country and placing this burden on our children and grandchildren is unacceptable. However, that is exactly what we are planing on.
Let’s make sure that the world we leave our children is better than the one today.
May 27, 2011
The BBC reports that researchers from the University of West England (UWE) have been analyzing performance in 48 schools before and after they joined an innovative healthy eating program. Measuring school ratings by the Government's inspection body Ofsted, researchers found that a third (36.2%) were judged outstanding by Ofsted, compared with 17.3% before they joined a program called the Food For Life Partnership (FFLP).
Funded through National Lottery money, the FFLP encourages students and teachers to grow, cook and eat good, fresh and sustainably grown food. In addition to improving school performance, the researchers from UWE also found that parents from participating schools reported an increased intake of fruits and vegetables at home too.
Of course it's hard to say whether improved student performance stems from better nutrition, or from the hands-on learning experience of growing, and learning about, real quality food. And to some extent the answer does not matter. It stands to reason that giving our children healthy food and opportunities to learn through gardening is going to make for healthier, happier and smarter kids. But it sure is good to see some evidence to back this up.
May 26, 2011
- Report: 'Unacceptable threat' from spent-fuel pools at US nuclear p ower plants
- Japan slammed as new leak found at stricken nuclear plant
- Fukushima nuclear reactor containment vessels may be leaking
- IAEA Knew Within Weeks of Japanese Earthquake that Reactors Had Melted Down ... Public Not Told for a Month and a Half
"A newly-described species of bacterium, Pseudomonas putida has been found to live on pure caffeine. The little jaspers metabolize caffeine into carbon dioxide and ammonia. They were found living in a flower bed on the University of Iowa campus, not in the drain of an espresso machine as one might expect. The paper presenting the research will be presented at the American Society for Microbiology meeting in New Orleans this month where caffeine metabolism will have to contend with the traditional ethanol metabolism." - SlashDot
The monsoon rains that usually flood southern China’s middle Yangtze river in spring did not come this year, and officials say rainfall in Hubei, Jiangxi, Anhui, Jiangsu and Zhejiang is at its lowest level in more than 50 years.
Guardian: The Yangtze – Asia’s biggest river – is experiencing its worst drought in 50 years, forcing an unprecedented release of water from the Three Gorges reservoir. The drought is damaging crops, threatening wildlife and raising doubts about the viability of China’s massive water diversion ambitions. Between now and 10 June the dam will release 5bn cubic metres of water – equivalent to the volume of Lake Windermere in Britain every day – as engineers sacrifice hydroelectric generation for irrigation, drinking supplies and ecosystem support.
The drastic measure comes amid warnings of power shortages and highlights the severity of the dry spell in the Yangtze delta, which supports 400 million people and 40% of China’s economic activity.
From January to April, the worst hit province of Hubei has had 40% less rainfall than the average over the same period since 1961. Shanghai, Jiangsu and Hunan are also severely affected.
More on China's drought:
THE hype about shale gas increased yesterday ...which has turned US domestic energy markets on their heads.If the EIA is correct and approximately 385 tcf of gas can be extracted from shale in Australia, this would extend the lifespan of domestic gas production even under a scenario of greatly increased consumption to over a century (thus further undermining any arguments to restrict exports based on resource nationalism - though obviously environmental issues remain, particularly given the experience in the US with unconventional gas extraction).
The move comes on the back of a report by the US Energy Information Agency that said Australia was sitting on the world's fifth-biggest reserves of shale gas and was ready to become a major producer. A revolution in shale gas technology has turned the US from a net importer of gas to one with a surplus in just the past five years, capping gas prices and dashing a host of planned liquefied natural gas import terminals.
The EIA, which is the US Energy Department's respected statistics and analysis arm, completed a study of global shale gas prospects last month and found Australia was one of the most prospective countries for development. "With geologic and industry conditions resembling those of the US and Canada, the country is poised to commercialise its gas shale resources on a large scale," the EIA said.
Santos is planning to drill in the Cooper Basin, which straddles the South Australia/Queensland border. Beach Energy, which claims it has more prospective shale ground than Santos, has already drilled there and is planning to do a frac test -- where the shale is fractured to release gas -- this quarter.
Gas captured in shale does not flow as easily as conventional gas, which is released from the rocks it is found in by pressure alone. The recent technology breakthroughs of the last decade mean the shale can be fractured underground to release the gas relatively economically.
May 25, 2011
India’s outsourcing giants — faced with rising wages at home — have looked for growth opportunities in the United States. But with Washington crimping visas for visiting Indian workers, some companies such as Aegis are slowly hiring workers in North America, where their largest corporate customers are based.
In this evolution, outsourcing has come home.
Capuana, a manager for Aegis in New York, motivates this U.S. office with dress-down days and the prospect that workers could, one day, earn a stint training call center workers in Goa, India. One of his tasks is to staff 176 cubicles, where workers make or take calls for customers of prescription drug plans or Medicare contracts and enter and verify information. The pay runs $12 to $14 an hour, with bonus checks of up to $730 a month. Read more at Washington Post
The eruption is the volcano’s most powerful since 1873 and stronger than the volcano that caused trouble last year.Scott Deveau, National Post
May 24, 2011
A really, really good way to do that, Zuckerberg said, is to let kids ages 13 and under join Facebook.
A possible scientific breakthrough that holds out the hope of cheap, abundant power...
Cold fusion - discredited and vilified in the past - is back in the news. The potential benefits are great enough that, despite past failures, the technology deserves a fair hearing from the scientific community this time.
In January, two Italian scientists announced they had invented a reactor that fuses nickel and hydrogen nuclei at room temperature, producing copper and throwing off massive amounts of energy in the process. Sergio Focardi and Andrea Rossi demonstrated their tabletop device before a standing-room-only crowd in Bologna, purportedly using 400 watts of power to generate 12,400 watts with no hazardous waste. They told observers that their reactors, small enough to fit in a household closet are able to produce electricity for less than 1 cent per kilowatt hour. The Italians' reported 31-fold increase in energy from cheap and commonplace ingredients - if genuine - would rank as one of the greatest scientific achievements of all time, deposing oil as king of energy resources. Petroleum-producing regimes in the Middle East now using petro-dollars from the United States and other power-needy nations to fund Islamic extremism across the globe would be put out of business. A nuclear physicist associated with the Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Giuseppe Levi, told reporters at the January demonstration that he was convinced the results were accurate. But peer-reviewed journals, exhibiting an abundance of caution, have so far refused to publish the findings.- Washington Times
It is easy to understand why. In 1989, University of Utah chemist Stanley Pons and University of Southampton chemist Martin Fleischmann announced a similar breakthrough in cold fusion. When their results were largely unexplainable and irreproducible, they were shunned by the scientific community. That episode has resulted in scientists looking askance at any claims of success in cold fusion research, complicating the task the Italians face in proving their results are genuine.
The interest on Andrea Rossi's Nickel-Hydrogen Cold Fusion technology is accelerating. However, Rossi says that about 30% of nickel was turned into copper, after 6 months of uninterrupted operation. Kowalski says that "this seems to be impossible because the produced copper isotopes rapidly decay into Ni". . . Rossi says that about 30% of nickel was turned into copper, after 6 months of uninterrupted operation. At first glance this seems to agree with calculations based on simple assumptions. - Journal of Nuclear Physics
“The source of information you're using, the evaluation of that source, how you use it, how you respect it and cite it – that's all what we call informational literacy,”
The world of librarians was thrown into a tizzy this week – it doesn't take much these days – when the Windsor-Essex Catholic District School Board announced it will shut its school libraries and dump all but four of its library technicians. The school board has 1,000 fewer students and needs to cut $10-million, and sees “nostalgic” libraries and librarians as dispensable in a digital age. In the late 1990s, 80 per cent of Ontario's elementary schools had a teacher-librarian; today, only 56 per cent do, despite the statistical fact that active libraries and librarians improve student performance. “We need to work on teaching 21st-century learning skills,” Cathy Geml, a Windsor school board official, explained, demonstrating her grasp of one of the 21st century's most tread-worn clichés. That was the tip of the iceberg.
While Windsor defended its slash, top-level librarians attended a symposium at McMaster University in Hamilton on the future of academic libraries. Discussion whirled around the radical proposals of McMaster's university librarian, Jeff Trzeciak. Mr. Trzeciak is the mad dog of research librarians: His deeply digital vision is one in which shrunken libraries are staffed not by librarians, but by information technologists and (much cheaper) post-doctoral students. Those aren't just ideas, either. The University of Denver library recently put 80 per cent of its books in storage. This is the new mantra in library land. The same day Windsor dropped its bomb, Seth Godin, a well-known blogger and business guru, published a blog that rocked the carrels of the land. “Wikipedia and the huge databanks of information have basically eliminated the library,” Mr. Godin wrote, in the precipitous tone gurus prefer. “Kids … need a library not at all.” Physical libraries and actual flesh-and-blood librarians seem to be more necessary than ever. Read more from the Globe & Mail
Iceland also closed its main international airport and canceled domestic flights on Sunday, and aviation officials will be closely monitoring European airspace for the next few days. The outburst is the volcano's most powerful since 1873 -- stronger than the Eyjafjallajokull volcano which caused trouble last year -- but it may not cause the same degree of upheaval. Scientists say the type of ash being spewed out is less easily dispersed and winds have so far been more favorable than during last year's blast. Gathered here are a handful of images taken in the land of fire and ice over the weekend. More photos 23 photos
May 23, 2011
WASHINGTON — Five years before the crucial emergency vents at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant were disabled by an accident they were supposed to help handle, engineers at a reactor in Minnesota warned American regulators about that very problem.
When the reactors were designed in the 1960s, the idea was that in the event of an accident, all of the radioactive materials would be bottled up in the primary containment. This was itself a philosophical reversal, in the sense that it was an acknowledgment that it might be impossible to hold everything in.
Another issue is that the Deep Tunnel will not prevent all untreated sewage releases into the river and Lake Michigan, since overflows often happen because of bottlenecks in the network of smaller pipes that lead to the Deep Tunnel.
“You can have infinite storage capacity, but unless you can move enough water quickly enough to the storage area, you’re still going to have problems,” said Joel Brammeier, president of the Alliance for the Great Lakes.
The E.P.A. and planning and environmental groups say cities should reduce the amount of rainwater flowing into sewer pipes through a range of so-called green infrastructure projects, including permeable pavement that lets water trickle through; sunken medians lined with gravel or plants; green roofs and retention ponds.
The draft consent decree requires the water reclamation district to spend $325,000 on green infrastructure, which critics say is far too little. The federal government has ordered other cities to spend millions on green drainage methods — $42 million in Cleveland alone.
Federal officials and Ms. Young said they could not comment on the consent decree because of ongoing negotiations.
Ann Alexander, a senior attorney for the Natural Resources Defense Council, said the district is too fixed on traditional solutions. “They don’t believe green infrastructure can really solve problems, they think of it as something dreamed up by hippies,” she said.Read more from NY Times
May 22, 2011
Simple math: roofs + parking lots = millions of acres for FREE prime space for solar (a dah moment). Solar farm near Climax losing money because of property taxes
Producing 225,592 kilowatt hours of electricity in its first year of operation, a solar farm in eastern Kalamazoo County that went online in early 2010 has exceeded expectations. Also exceeding expectations is the property tax, said Sam Field, a Kalamazoo attorney and one of the owners of Kalamazoo Solar. The $27,689 tax bill for the Charleston Township property means that the owners are losing money, even when being paid a premium price of 45 cents a kilowatt hour by Consumers Energy, he said. “That Michigan property tax burden works out to a cost of 12.3 cents per kilowatt hour,” Field said.
“That amount is more than the retail value of the electricity.”
Bail out FAIL - The Deal to Sell GM to China
Bailout bonus: GM becoms a foreign corporation
G.M. destine to fail over and over again
GM Volt FAIL - Will be made in China Ouch!
Track the demise of the VOLT on this blog.... just search gm, volt
- They blamed the Federal Reserve and its efforts to spur economic growth for the price increase.
- "Since the Fed launched its program of quantitative easing in late November 2008, the value (trade-weighted) of the U.S. dollar has declined 14 percent," the study calculated.
- "The declining value of the U.S. dollar has added $17.04 per barrel to the price of oil (Brent Crude)," thus driving up the price of gasoline.
The study used several yardsticks to measure the dollar's effect.
- For instance, while the price of oil has risen 150 percent in the United States since the end of 2008, it has gone up only 96 percent in Canada.
- The Canadian dollar's value has strengthened in recent years against the U.S. dollar.
The safety plan for any nuclear power plant reads like a doomsday book...
Earthquakes, floods, airplane crashes, mass evacuations, terrorist attacks, hurricanes, tornadoes — all are disaster scenarios deemed a risk to reactor safety. The most likely threat, however, involves none of these headline cataclysms. Fires regularly occur at the 104 U.S. nuclear plants nearly 10 times a year on average. About half the accidents that threaten reactor cores begin with fires that can start from a short circuit in an electric cable, a spark that ignites the oil in a pump, or an explosion in a transformer. Even a small fire could trigger a chain of events that threatens a meltdown, and some have come close. Just a year ago, a South Carolina nuclear plant suffered two fires in a single day — ironically on the 31st anniversary of the nation’s worst nuclear accident at Three Mile Island . The seven-hour crisis escaped much national notice even though it left half the plant without adequate power or a reliable supply of cooling water for its reactors, a situation worsened by workers’ unfamiliarity with the proper safety response. Despite growing concerns, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission hardly ever issues serious penalties for fires, preferring instead for voluntary compliance and slaps on the wrist, a review by iWatch News found. The South Carolina plant, for instance, received low-level written citations that carried no penalty after the March 2010 fires.
May 21, 2011
It is why we should always treat each other and each day as it could be our last. Because one day, you will be right.
While May 21st may not be the end of days... here are some signs it is coming ;-
I got this in my inbox:
May 21st 2011.
This is a notification to inform you that the world will be ending shortly.
The world will be ending due the following reason: The Rapture.
This has been forecast by Harold Egbert Camping. Despite previously incorrectly
predicting the end of the world (September 1994), we at the End of the World
Notification Service believe his revised date should be taken very seriously.
We advise that you take the short time you have left on Earth to either repent,
spend time with your loved ones or join one of the many Rapture Parties taking
About Mr Camping: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harold_Camping
About the parties: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-13468131
END OF MESSAGE
And U.S. Centers for Disease Control Advises: Prepare for Zombie Apocalypse????
Sure this is funny... and in bad taste. But at the end an important message about being prepared for a mild emergency.
The following was originally posted on CDC Public Health Matters Blog
There are all kinds of emergencies out there that we can prepare for. Take a zombie apocalypse for example. That’s right, I said z-o-m-b-i-e a-p-o-c-a-l-y-p-s-e. You may laugh now, but when it happens you’ll be happy you read this, and hey, maybe you’ll even learn a thing or two about how to prepare for a real emergency.
So what do you need to do before zombies…or hurricanes or pandemics for example, actually happen? First of all, you should have an emergency kit in your house. This includes things like water, food, and other supplies to get you through the first couple of days before you can locate a zombie-free refugee camp (or in the event of a natural disaster, it will buy you some time until you are able to make your way to an evacuation shelter or utility lines are restored). On the CDC website are a few items you should include in your kit, for a full list visit the CDC Emergency page.