Aug 1, 2019

Russian Titanic released 100 times more radiation in Europe than 2011’s Fukushima disaster.

Mysterious radioactive leak that swept Europe came from Russia, study confirms despite Kremlin denial

The source of a mysterious radioactive leak that swept Europe in 2017 has been traced to a nuclear processing plant in the southern Ural mountains in Russia, a new study confirms. 

Scientists analysed more than 1,300 data points all over the world to find the source of the enormous leak, which released 100 times more radiation in Europe than 2011's Fukushima disaster. 

The source – which is believed to be the Russian Mayak facility – was not a reactor accident but an incident in a nuclear reprocessing plant, researchers found.  

Russia has always denied the facility was the source and no official statement has been released in response to this latest research. 

The alarm bell was raised in October 2017 by Italian scientists who noticed a spike of the radioactive ruthenium-106. It was then detected in many European countries as well as in Asia, the Arabian Peninsula and even in the Caribbean.

The fact that ruthenium was the only radioactive material detected strongly suggested the source was a nuclear reprocessing plant, as reactor accidents typically release a number of different elements. 

Scientists could pinpoint the release to between 6pm on 25 September 2017 to noon the following day. 



Jul 16, 2019

Scientists Have Discovered a Sea of Fresh Water Under the Ocean

Quartz: Thousands of years ago, glaciers covered much of the planet. Oceans receded as water froze in massive sheets of ice blanketing the North American continent. As the ice age ended, glaciers melted. Massive river deltas flowed out across the continental shelf. The oceans rose, and fresh water was trapped in sediments below the waves. Discovered while drilling for oil offshore in the 1970s, scientists thought these "isolated" pockets of fresh water were a curiosity. They may instead prove to be a parched world's newest source of fresh water.

As told in the latest issue of the peer-reviewed journal Scientific Reports, scientists from Columbia University and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution spent 10 days on a research ship towing electromagnetic sensors from New Jersey to Massachusetts. By measuring the way electromagnetic waves traveled through fresh and saline water, researchers mapped out fresh-water reservoirs for the first time.

It turns out the subterranean pools stretch for at least 50 miles off the US Atlantic coast, containing vast stores of low-salinity groundwater, about twice the volume of Lake Ontario. The deposits begin about 600 ft (183 m) below the seafloor and stretch for hundreds of miles. That rivals the size of even the largest terrestrial aquifers.

Jul 15, 2019

Federal Black Lung program is failing to prevent new illnesses AND running out of money.

By Joe Davidson
https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/2019/07/11/black-lung-disease-cases-grow-while-federal-programs-financing-suffers

Like the miners who work underground in dark and dangerous conditions, black lung disease is, for many, largely out of sight, out of mind.

But for folks such as Gary Hairston, who spent more than 27 years in the mines around his Beckley, W.Va., home, the ailment is ever-present. He lives with it. Many have died of it.

Now, the number of black lung cases is growing. At the same time, funding for a federal program to care for those with the disease has fallen sharply.

While the Black Lung Disability Trust Fund has been in debt regularly since 1979, its financial situation is increasingly bleak. Even with the debt, the fund provides medical and financial assistance to certain miners who are totally disabled by the disease. About 25,600 people, including dependents, received black lung benefits in fiscal 2018. The average annual cost for medical treatment was $9,667.

A Government Accountability Office report says the trust fund's penury is exacerbated by this year's 55 percent decrease in the coal tax rate, declining coal production and coal company bankruptcies. The tax is levied on coal produced and sold domestically. When coal companies go broke, their responsibility to fund the black lung program is transferred to taxpayers.

The GAO predicts that the fund's debt could grow from less than $5 billion last year to more than $15 billion by 2050.

What matters more than money is the coal miners' misery.

Hairston's doctor initially thought the mass on his lung was cancer. A biopsy showed the Fayette County Black Lung Association vice president had a complicated form of black lung.

"I was 48 years old when I had to quit work. I can't play with my grandkids," Hairston told a hearing of the House Education and Labor subcommittee on workforce protections. With his large gray goatee and broad shoulders, Hairston is a distinguished-looking man, but he nearly broke down while delivering passionate testimony.

"I never did think at a young age that I wouldn't be able to take care of my family," he said. He wiped away tears before subcommittee Chairwoman Alma Adams (D-N.C.) allowed Hairston, almost overcome with emotion, to cut his testimony short.

Recent research indicates "an unprecedented increase" in the most severe form of black lung disease, according to a July 2018 update from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. The update does not provide a reason for the increase.

A 2016 CDC document said the factors leading to an increase of black lung in Kentucky are unknown, but it did offer some suggestions. Among the possibilities are new or modified mining practices, including slope mining and continuous use of mining machines. More miners seeking X-rays to determine whether they are eligible for state or federal programs also could be a factor.

Please read full By Joe Davidson at:
https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/2019/07/11/black-lung-disease-cases-grow-while-federal-programs-financing-suffers



550,000 Acres on Fire in Alaska

Two small communities near Anderson, Alaska were ordered to evacuate late Thursday due to a wildfire, as the state's summer of heat and smoke continues.

The Kobe Fire was reported at 6:45 p.m. Thursday and by 10:50 p.m. had grown to 600 acres, The Alaska Division of Forestry reported. There are no reports that anyone was burned, but multiple buildings were threatened, prompting the evacuation of the Kobe and Anderson subdivisions. The residents of the City of Anderson, around 10 miles northeast of the blaze, were told to be ready to leave at a moment's notice.

The fire is the latest to ignite in Alaska, where 1.2 million acres have burned so far this year, making 2019 one of the state's three biggest wildfire years.

https://akfireinfo.com/2019/07/11/evacuations-ordered-for-city-of-anderson-due-to-rapidly-growing-wildfire/

Jul 12, 2019

Updated Consolidated List of Lists under EPCRA/CERCLA/CAA 112(r)

EPA revised the consolidated list of chemicals subject to the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA); Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA); and Section 112(r) of the Clean Air Act; also known as the List of Lists. The List of Lists is available as a PDF file and as an Excel spreadsheet.

Jun 26, 2019

Protecting pregnant employees who work with chemicals

Lists for pregnant employee chemicals to avoid.  

When reviewing (SDS) safety data sheet's, in addition to Section 11, Toxicology,
Also review the hazard statements in Section 2,
Hazards Identification, where you may see something like "H360 May damage fertility or the unborn child."

While there is not ONE definitive list of reproductive toxinS, here are some lists of reproductive toxins:
https://www.ehs.iastate.edu/publications/factsheets/CarcReproTerat.pdf
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5447413/
https://www.osha.gov/SLTC/reproductivehazards/additionalinformation.html
https://www.chemistry.ucla.edu/sites/default/files/safety/doc/REPRODUCTIVE_TOXINS.pdf
https://oehha.ca.gov/media/downloads/proposition-65/p65list112318.pdf
https://unc.policystat.com/policy/5812455/latest/#autoid-2gw4v


Japan has a list
https://www.jniosh.johas.go.jp/icpro/jicosh-old/english/topics/mutagenicchemicals/mutagenicchemicals.html

EU does too
https://oshwiki.eu/wiki/Carcinogenic,_mutagenic,_reprotoxic_(CMR)_substances


SDS NOTE: An issue with products used in the workplace is that they are often mixtures of chemicals. Maybe a chemical that is a reproductive toxin will be 10 percent of the contents of a mixture. The manufacturer needs to write a safety data sheet. That doesn't mean that they will write a good one. For example, at least in the past, many products that contained bis-phenol A did not include any information on endocrine disruption, although bis-phenol A was a well-known estrogen mimic. In the absence of time-consuming research, you can be at the mercy of the manufacturer.

Jun 25, 2019

Study: fertilizer is root cause for increased global methane emissions, not cows

While the cattle industry is repeatedly accused of being the main culprit for increased global methane emissions (and a leading cause for climate change), a new study shows that the fertilizer industry is the root cause.

The report by researchers from Cornell, published in Elementa, shows that emissions of methane from the industrial fertilizer industry have been ridiculously underestimated (and, it turns out, based on self-reporting) and the production of ammonia for fertilizer may result in up to 100 times more emissions than previously estimated for this sector. What's worse is that these newly calculated emission amounts from the industrial fertilizer industry are actually more than the total amount the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimated for all industries to emit across the U.S.

Full study here:
https://www.elementascience.org/articles/10.1525/elementa.358/

Anesthetic Gas: A Risk for Veterinary Workers

There is increasing evidence that exposure to isoflurane, the anesthetic gas commonly used in veterinary practice, may pose health risks, including nervous or reproductive system harm.

A new Workplace Hazard Update, Isoflurane May Harm Veterinary Worker Health (PDF), details how staff are exposed. It also provides guidance for minimizing exposure.

A California Department of Public Health investigation found high levels of isoflurane in workers' breathing zones during common veterinary procedures. Staff at veterinary practices were often unaware of the dangers of isoflurane, Cal/OSHA requirements, and ways they can protect themselves from the hazard.

Did you know?

Cal/OSHA has set a legal limit on the maximum level of isoflurane that can be in the air workers breathe. This Permissible Exposure Limit, or PEL, for isoflurane is 2 parts per million (ppm). CDPH found that many veterinarians, clinic owners, and workers were unaware of this regulation.

Email Occupational Health Watch with feedback about this update or change of address.

Two veterinary workers wearing masks, surgical gloves, and hats operate on a dog in a clinic.

Veterinary staff may be unaware that anesthetic gas is getting in the air they breathe.


 

Resources

Isoflurane May Harm Veterinary Worker Health (PDF) – OHB workplace hazard update
 
Recommendations on Control of Waste Anesthetic Gases in the
Workplace (PDF) – American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia
 
Guidelines for Workplace Exposures to Anesthetic Gases – OSHA

May 30, 2019

DOE Releases New Study Highlighting the Untapped Potential of Geothermal Energy in the United States

WASHINGTON, D.C. – Today, the U.S. Department of Energy released a
groundbreaking analysis detailing how the United States can benefit
from the vast potential of geothermal energy.

The analysis culminated in a report, GeoVision: Harnessing the Heat
Beneath Our Feet, which summarizes findings showing that geothermal
electricity generation could increase more than 26-fold from
today—reaching 60 gigawatts (GW) of installed capacity by 2050. In
addition to describing electricity-generation opportunities, the
GeoVision analysis also shows how geothermal can enhance heating and
cooling solutions for American residential and commercial consumers
through direct-use and heat-pump technologies.

"There is enormous untapped potential for geothermal energy in the
United States," said U.S. Secretary of Energy Rick Perry. "Making
geothermal more affordable can increase our energy options for a more
diverse electricity generation mix and for innovative heating and
cooling solutions for all Americans."

The GeoVision analysis represents a multiyear collaboration among
industry, academia, the National Laboratories, and federal agencies to
evaluate the potential for different geothermal resources. The effort
assessed opportunities to expand nationwide geothermal energy
deployment through 2050 by improving technologies, reducing costs, and
addressing project development barriers such as long permitting
timelines.

In the electric sector, under business as usual, geothermal generation
capacity will grow to 6 GW by 2050. By accelerating geothermal
development timelines, geothermal capacity could more than double from
business as usual, to 13 GW. Geothermal capacity could increase even
further—to 60 GW—by combining faster development timelines with
technology improvements.

In the non-electric sector, technology improvements could enable more
than 17,500 geothermal district-heating installations nationwide, and
28 million U.S. households could realize cost-effective heating and
cooling solutions through the use of geothermal heat pumps.

The analysis also examined economic benefits to the U.S. geothermal
industry; investigated opportunities for desalination, mineral
recovery, and hybridization with other energy technologies for greater
efficiencies and lower costs; and quantified potential environmental
impacts of increased geothermal deployment.

In addition to summarizing opportunities for geothermal energy in the
United States, the GeoVision analysis includes a roadmap of actionable
items for stakeholders to reduce technology costs and speed up
project-development timelines.

For more information on the Energy Department's Office of Energy
Efficiency and Renewable Energy, or the Geothermal Technologies
Office, visit the EERE website. To learn more about the GeoVision
report, visit the Energy Department's GeoVisionanalysis webpage.

Source
https://www.energy.gov/articles/doe-releases-new-study-highlighting-untapped-potential-geothermal-energy-united-states

May 24, 2019

In case you forgot...60,000 tons of dangerous radioactive waste still sits on Great Lakes shores

More than 60,000 tons of highly radioactive spent nuclear fuel is
stored on the shores of four of the five Great Lakes — in some cases,
mere yards from the waterline — in still-growing stockpiles.

"It's actually the most dangerous waste produced by any industry in
the history of the Earth," said Gordon Edwards, president of the
nonprofit Canadian Coalition for Nuclear Responsibility.

The spent nuclear fuel is partly from 15 current or former U.S.
nuclear power plants, including four in Michigan, that have generated
it over the past 50 years or more. But most of the volume stored along
the Great Lakes, more than 50,000 tons, comes from Canadian nuclear
facilities, where nuclear power is far more prevalent.

It remains on the shorelines because there's still nowhere else to put
it. The U.S. government broke a promise to provide the nuclear power
industry with a central, underground repository for the material by
1998. Canada, while farther along than the U.S. in the process of
trying to find a place for the waste, also doesn't have one yet.


Read more from source:
https://www.freep.com/story/news/local/michigan/2018/10/19/nuclear-waste-great-lakes/1417767002/

May 23, 2019

Work-Related Asthma in the ER

Most people who go to work don't expect to end up at the emergency
room for asthma. According to a Work-Related Asthma Prevention Program
(WRAPP) pilot study, an estimated 1 in 4 adults who wound up in the ER
for asthma in 2016 were there because of their exposures from work.

The study also found that 60% of people surveyed by phone after ER
visits experienced asthma symptoms due to work at some point in their
lives.

During Asthma Awareness Month in May, workplaces can share information
in multiple languages about preventing work-related asthma by
decreasing or eliminating exposures. Examples include having a
fragrance-free policy, using asthma-safer cleaning products, cleaning
with microfiber, and minimizing wood dust in the air.


Photo: Hospital workers can be exposed to disinfectants that can
trigger or cause asthma.

Resources

Work-Related Asthma Prevention Program (WRAPP) - OHB website

Cleaning Products, Disinfectants, and Work-Related Asthma - OHB topic page

Fragrances and Work-Related Asthma - OHB topic page

Pool Chemicals and Work-Related Asthma - OHB topic page

Wood Dust and Work-Related Asthma - OHB topic page

Source:
https://www.cdph.ca.gov/Programs/CCDPHP/DEODC/OHB/Pages/OHWMay2019.aspx

May 21, 2019

Improvements to New Chemicals Website Increase Transparency

EPA has updated its new chemicals statistics webpage to make it easier
to find and understand how many chemicals are in each stage of the new
chemical review process. The page now includes a flow chart showing
the number of new chemicals cases (PMNs, SNUNs and MCANs) at each
stage of review and detailed descriptions of each step in the process.

These changes are the first step in a larger effort to increase the
transparency of the new chemicals program and ensure stakeholders and
the public can quickly and easily view EPA's progress in reviewing new
chemicals submissions as the Agency receives them.

For more information visit:
https://www.epa.gov/reviewing-new-chemicals-under-toxic-substances-control-act-tsca/statistics-new-chemicals-review.

May 14, 2019

​EPA to Hold First Meeting of the Science Advisory Committee on Chemicals

WASHINGTON — Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced it will hold the first meeting of the Science Advisory Committee on Chemicals (SACC) under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), as amended by the Frank R. Lautenberg Chemical Safety for the 21st Century Act (Lautenberg Act), for Pigment Violet 29 (PV29), the first chemical of the initial 10 chemicals undergoing review.

"This will be an important opportunity for the science experts on this new committee to provide their scientific and technical advice to EPA," said EPA Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention Assistant Administrator Alexandra Dapolito Dunn. "This peer review ensures scientific rigor and enhances transparency of the risk evaluation process."

The purpose of the June 18-21, 2019, SACC meeting is for EPA to get the independent review of the science underlying the PV29 risk assessment, including the hazard assessment, assessment of dose-response, exposure assessment, and risk characterization. Additionally, this meeting will include an orientation on TSCA and how EPA is evaluating chemicals in commerce as prescribed in the Lautenberg Act. EPA will use the scientific advice, information and recommendations from the SACC, as well as public comments, to inform the final risk evaluation.

The public has an opportunity to provide comments before and during the meeting. In March 2019, EPA re-opened the public comment period on the draft risk evaluation. The public has from April 17, 2019 until May 17, 2019 to provide comments in docket EPA-HQ-OPPT-2018-0604 on http://www.regulations.gov.

This peer review meeting was rescheduled from an earlier meeting that was previously canceled due to the lapse in appropriations.






May 2, 2019

EPA to Propose Revisions to Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) Rule

(PAINT.ORG), EPA provided notice in the Federal Register that it will be releasing a proposed rule to revise its Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) rule. The agency said the proposed amendments would support Agency data collection efforts, align reporting with amended Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) by requiring that confidentially claims be substantiated, and make chemical reporting easier by streamlining complex submissions.

EPA aims to amend the CDR rule to update the definition of small entities (small manufacturers), who are exempt from reporting; add exemptions for specific types of byproducts; simplify reporting, including allowing manufacturers to use certain processing and use data codes already in use as part of international codes developed through the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development; and remove outdated rule text and consolidate exemptions.

EPA noted that the proposed revised definition for small entities may reduce the burden on chemical manufacturers by increasing the number of manufacturers considered small.

TSCA Section 8(a) authorizes EPA to require, by rulemaking, manufacturers (including importers) and processors of chemical substances to maintain records and/or report such data as EPA may reasonably require to carry out the TSCA mandates. Information that can be required to be reported may include the following:

  • Chemical or mixture identity
  • Categories of use
  • Quantity manufactured or processed
  • By-product description
  • Health and environmental effects information
  • Number of individuals exposed
  • Method(s) of disposal

The current CDR rule requires manufacturers (including importers) of certain chemical substances listed on the TSCA Chemical Substance Inventory (TSCA Inventory) to report data on chemical manufacturing, processing, and use every four (4) years.

Once the official rule EPA proposal is published in the Federal Register, the agency will accept comments on the proposal for 60 days.

​EPA and federal partners seek public input on draft GLRI Action Plan III

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and its federal partners are seeking additional input from the public on developing the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) Action Plan III. The plan will outline priorities and goals for the GLRI for the years 2020-2024. Input will be received until May 24, 2019.

Last summer, EPA received input on priorities for Action Plan III through six public engagement sessions convened across the Great Lakes basin. Feedback was received from the general public and representatives of agriculture, industry, academia, local government, non-profits, and metropolitan planning organizations. EPA also consulted with the Great Lakes states and tribes throughout the draft plan's development.

The draft plan and a link to provide input are available at: https://www.glri.us/action-plan-3

CSB Calls on EPA to Update HF Study in Wake of the 2017 Husky Refinery Fire

Washington, D.C. April 24, 2019 - Today, the US Chemical Safety Board released a letter calling on the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), to review its existing Hydrofluoric Acid (HF) study to determine the effectiveness of existing regulations as well as the viability of utilizing inherently safer alkylation technologies in petroleum refineries.

CSB Interim Executive Kristen Kulinowski said, "In the last 4 years, the CSB has investigated two refinery incidents where an explosion elevated the threat of a release of HF. Refinery workers and surrounding community residents are rightly concerned about the adequacy of the risk management for the use of hazardous chemicals like HF. The EPA should review its 1993 HF study to ensure the health and safety of communities near petroleum refineries utilizing HF."

HF is a highly toxic chemical that can seriously injure or cause death at a concentration of 30 parts per million (PPM), which is used in about fifty of the U.S.'s approximately 150 refineries, as well as many other industries. In a refinery, the chemical is used as a catalyst in the creation of a blending agent for high octane gasoline. In both of its investigations, the CSB conducted a public hearing in which members of the surrounding communities expressed their concerns about the adequacy of the risk management strategies for the use of HF and the effectiveness of community notification procedures in the event of a catastrophic release.

Kulinowski said, "The EPA is the appropriate agency to assess the adequacy of risk management for the use of chemicals like HF. Refiners, their workforce and communities that surround the refineries need assurances that the risk plans are adequate to prevent a catastrophic release."

LINK TO LETTER: http://www.idevmail.net/link.aspx?l=3&d=86&mid=414620&m=2008

Apr 17, 2019

The rise of Candida auris embodies a serious and growing public health threat: drug-resistant germs.

(NewYorkTimes) Last May, an elderly man was admitted to the Brooklyn branch of Mount Sinai Hospital for abdominal surgery. A blood test revealed that he was infected with a newly discovered germ as deadly as it was mysterious. Doctors swiftly isolated him in the intensive care unit.

The germ, a fungus called Candida auris, preys on people with weakened immune systems, and it is quietly spreading across the globe. Over the last five years, it has hit a neonatal unit in Venezuela, swept through a hospital in Spain, forced a prestigious British medical center to shut down its intensive care unit, and taken root in India, Pakistan and South Africa.

Recently C. auris reached New York, New Jersey and Illinois, leading the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to add it to a list of germs deemed "urgent threats."

Read full: NewYorkTimes

Apr 12, 2019

Post Fukushima - 23 countries still have bans on food imports from Japan because of the nuclear incident.

In 2015, the Japanese government filed a complaint with the World Trade Organization.

Japan said all the seafood it ships is safe because it meets strict standards on radioactive substances.

Japan called South Korea's actions unfair and discriminatory.

A WTO dispute panel supported Japan in February last year and recommended South Korea correct its restrictions.

South Korea appealed that decision.

According to Japan's Agriculture Ministry, a total of 23 countries and territories still have bans on food imports from Japan because of the nuclear incident.

Source:

Apr 10, 2019

U.S. Green Building Council Launches LEED v4.1

On April 2,  the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) announced that the new version of the LEED green building program – LEED v4.1 – is now available for cities, communities and homes. According to USGBS, LEED v4.1 certification recognizes leadership by emphasizing performance monitoring, fully integrated design, social equity and human health factors.

Green building standards and codes contain specific restrictions and indoor air quality requirements for paint, coatings, adhesives, and sealants. LEED is one of the most prominent green building standards, alongside the International Green Construction Code, also known as the International Code Council (IgCC). Although LEED is the most dominant rating system in the United States, there is growing competition among rating systems, heightened by an interest in environmentally-friendly building materials. The implementation of these standards by jurisdictions and individuals are driving down volatile organic compound (VOC) limits. There are further efforts toward mandatory emissions testing for interior products to improve indoor air quality and the restriction of chemicals used in building materials.

The updated LEED v4.1, builds on new methodologies for measuring building performance. This includes changes to the Material and Resources (MR) categories and the Indoor Environmental Quality (EQ) categories. The VOC Content standards for adhesives and sealants were updated to the most recent South Coast Air Quality Management District Rule 1168. Points for low-emitting materials are now awarded on a scale based on the number of product categories that meet the requirements. The emission evaluation requirement for Paints, Coatings, Adhesives, and Sealants has been reduced to 75% from 90%. There have also been weighting changes for how environmental product declarations are counted under the new v4.1.  These are a few of the changes made under the new rating system which will impact how member companies can maximize LEED credits to their products. The smaller green building standard WELL, has released WELL V2 the Association will continue to track the standard and comment when applicable. The intent of this update was to more align with LEED where possible.

For the residential market, LEED v4.1 combines the familiar and relevant aspects from four previously-existing LEED for homes rating systems (LEED for Low-rise homes, LEED for Midrise Homes, LEED for Core and Shell and LEED for New Construction) to deliver three rating systems – LEED v4.1 Residential: New Single-family homes, LEED v4.1 Residential: New Multifamily homes and LEED v4.1 New Multifamily homes core and shell. According the USGBC, the updated rating system is designed to make the decision to implement LEED easier for residential projects and revitalize the council's approach to the housing market.

For the LEED for Cities and LEED for Communities rating systems, LEED v4.1 expands on the earlier performance based approach to deliver a comprehensive framework to support plan, design, operation and performance management phases of both new and existing cities and communities. The rating systems align with all the UN Sustainable Development Goals and incorporate leadership standards and best practices from complementary systems, like the previously integrated STAR Community Rating System, as well as the PEERTRUEEDGE and SITES programs. According to USGBC, More than 90 cities and communities around the world, representing more than 45 million people, are LEED-certified based on several factors, including water efficiency, energy, greenhouse gas emissions, materials and resources, quality of life, innovation and regional priorities.

Update: Waters of the United States (WOTUS) Rule

In response to a number of Supreme Court cases that have complicated what constitutes WOTUS, or the "waters of the United States," the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Army Corps of Engineers pursued a rulemaking during 2014 and 2015 to revise the regulatory definition of WOTUS. In May 2015, EPA released the final WOTUS rule which disregarded many concerns expressed by industry, including ACA. The 2015 WOTUS rule gave the federal government jurisdiction over some of the smallest waterways in the country, including authority over smaller bodies of water that EPA doesn't already regulate. Since promulgation, the 2015 WOTUS rule was subject to extensive litigation leading up to the eventual stay of the 2015 rule by the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit.

On February 28, 2017, President Trump issued Executive Order 13778 which directed EPA and the Army Corps to review and rescind or revise the 2015 WOTUS rule. As a result, EPA and the Army Corps initiated a comprehensive, two-step process intended to repeal (step one) and revise (step two) the definition of WOTUS.

Since then, the agencies issued three rulemakings pertaining to step one of the process that attempt to: (1) repeal the 2015 WOTUS definition, (2) recodify of the pre-2015 WOTUS definition and regulation, and (3) delay the effective date of the 2015 WOTUS rule to provide additional time and regulatory certainty while the agencies complete their two-step process. These efforts were met with legal action by various entities, though, and several district courts ruled that the agencies did not follow proper procedures to delay implementation of the 2015 WOTUS rule. On March 8, 2019, the Trump administration abandoned its bid to use the courts to delay implementation of the 2015 WOTUS rule. This means that the 2015 WOTUS rule will remain in effect for the foreseeable future in more than 20 states across the country (the other states do not have to follow the 2015 rule because of prior legal rulings in their jurisdictions). Additionally, on March 26, a U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Ohio didn't grant an injunction sought by Ohio and Tennessee that would have effectively nullified the 2015 WOTUS definition. According to the judge, those states couldn't substantiate claims that the rule's enforcement would cause irreparable harm to the states.

Despite this setback, EPA and the Army Corps still intend to proceed with their two-step process to repeal and revise the definition of WOTUS through regulatory action. The agencies' June 2018 proposed rule to repeal the 2015 WOTUS rule in its entirety and recodify the pre-2015 regulation is still slated to be finalized sometime in mid-2019. Also, in anticipation of this final rule, EPA and the Army Corps published a proposed rule in February 2019 that formally initiated step two of their process which revises the definition of WOTUS. Of note, the agencies are proposing a baseline concept that "waters of the United States" are waters within the ordinary meaning of the term, such as oceans, rivers, streams, lakes, ponds, and wetlands, and that not all waters are "waters of the United States."


EPA Publishes List of 40 Chemicals for Prioritization Review under Amended TSCA

On March 21, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published in the Federal Register its list of 40 candidate chemicals for high and low priority under the amended Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA).  The list designates 20 high priority and 20 low priority candidates. Several of the high priority chemicals are used in the manufacture of paints, coatings, sealants or adhesives.

EPA must complete the 9-month prioritization process and begin risk evaluations by December 22, 2019.

Under the amended TSCA and related implementing regulations, EPA is required to prioritize 20 chemical substances as candidates for designation as High Priority Substances for risk evaluation and 20 chemical substances as candidates for designation as Low Priority Substances for risk evaluation.

EPA is accepting comments and information germane to the chemical substances through June 19, 2019. EPA is seeking information about the following:

  • The chemical substance's hazard and exposure potential;
  • The chemical substance's persistence and bioaccumulation;
  • Potentially exposed or susceptible subpopulations which the submitter believes are relevant to the prioritization;
  • Whether there is any storage of the chemical substance near significant sources of drinking water, including the storage facility location and the nearby drinking water source(s);
  • The chemical substance's conditions of use or significant changes in conditions of use, including information regarding trade names;
  • The chemical substance's production volume or significant changes in production volume; and
  • Any other information relevant to the potential risks of the chemical substance that might be relevant to the designation of the chemical substance's priority for risk evaluation.

Update: AIM VOC Rulemakings in New York, Colorado and California

Colorado and New York are proposing to adopt the Northeast Ozone Transport Commission (OTC) Phase II model rule limiting volatile organic compound (VOC) content for AIM (Architectural and Industrial Maintenance) coatings. In addition, the OTC states will likely begin working on the OTC Phase III AIM model rule in the next year or two, which will be based on the California Air Resources Board (CARB) AIM Suggested Control Measure (SCM) that is likely to be adopted in May 2019.

On Jan. 11, 2019, the Colorado Department of Health and Environment proposed to adopt the OTC Phase II AIM model rule for Colorado. Given that Colorado is currently complying with the federal AIM Rule limits combined with potential climate concerns with the mountainous portions of the state, ACA suggested Colorado instead adopt the more reasonable OTC Phase I Aim model rule limits, or at least first adopt the OTC Phase I limits and then phase in the OTC Phase II limits after two years. Notably, Colorado intends to adopt the AIM rule in July 2019 and include a May 1, 2019 compliance date in its final rule. ACA typically requests at least a one-year compliance date to allow manufacturers and users to prepare for the new limits.

On March 6, 2019, the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) also proposed to adopt the OTC II AIM model rule. However, the NYSDEC is also proposing to potentially eliminate the small container exemption and provide only a two-year sell through; every other AIM rule includes at least a three-year sell through period. ACA is preparing comments for NYSDEC's comment deadline of May 20. The department will conduct public hearings on its proposal on May 6, 13 and 14.

As aforementioned, CARB is scheduled to adopt a new AIM coatings SCM in May 2019. The SCM is important since the various California Air Districts will use it to develop their future AIM rule revisions. In addition, the OTC states will likely utilize the SCM in the development of the OTC Phase III AIM model rule in the next year or so.

Apr 9, 2019

A Mysterious Infection, Spanning the Globe in a Climate of Secrecy

" In the United States, two million people contract resistant infections annually, and 23,000 die from them, according to the official C.D.C. estimate. That number was based on 2010 figures; more recent estimates from researchers at Washington University School of Medicine put the death toll at 162,000. Worldwide fatalities from resistant infections are estimated at 700,000."

Last May, an elderly man was admitted to the Brooklyn branch of Mount Sinai Hospital for abdominal surgery. A blood test revealed that he was infected with a newly discovered germ as deadly as it was mysterious. Doctors swiftly isolated him in the intensive care unit.

The germ, a fungus called Candida auris, preys on people with weakened immune systems, and it is quietly spreading across the globe. Over the last five years, it has hit a neonatal unit in Venezuela, swept through a hospital in Spain, forced a prestigious British medical center to shut down its intensive care unit, and taken root in India, Pakistan and South Africa.

Recently C. auris reached New York, New Jersey and Illinois, leading the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to add it to a list of germs deemed "urgent threats."

...Tests showed it was everywhere in his room, so invasive that the hospital needed special cleaning equipment and had to rip out some of the ceiling and floor tiles to eradicate it.

"Everything was positive — the walls, the bed, the doors, the curtains, the phones, the sink, the whiteboard, the poles, the pump," said Dr. Scott Lorin, the hospital's president. "The mattress, the bed rails, the canister holes, the window shades, the ceiling, everything in the room was positive."

C. auris is so tenacious, in part, because it is impervious to major antifungal medications, making it a new example of one of the world's most intractable health threats: the rise of drug-resistant infections.

Read full at NY Times:


Apr 8, 2019

Giant Daily Drivers and Cellphones have U.S. Pedestrian Deaths Still Climbing

According to the National Highway Association, 6,227 people were killed on the road last year, more than any year since 1990. The upward trend in pedestrian deaths started at the beginning of this decade and shows no signs of slowing down. Bigger cars and distractions from cellphones are two leading causes of this growing problem.

Read full at:

Apr 5, 2019

OSHA's Occupational Medicine Resident Elective

The Office of Occupational Medicine and Nursing (OOMN) in OSHA serves as an instructional site for current resident physicians who are receiving training in occupational and environmental medicine, general preventive medicine, and aerospace medicine. At any time throughout the year, OOMN may host up to four resident physicians for an eight week training rotation. Future occupational and preventive medicine leaders have the opportunity to fully participate in OOMN activities and will also receive an organized series of lectures and presentations on the clinical and administrative aspects of occupational medicine. OOMN staff members have participated on the Residency Advisory Committees of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, The University of Maryland School of Medicine, and the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences.

Apr 3, 2019

OSHA’s new webpage Available on Radiation Emergencies

SHA's new webpage on radiation emergency preparedness is intended to help protect the health and safety of workers during situations ranging from small, isolated incidents in laboratories to potentially catastrophic radiation releases at nuclear facilities. The webpage also provides resources on health and safety planning, medical monitoring and dosimetry, and other relevant topics.
OSHA:

Apr 2, 2019

DOE Announces Up to $26.1 Million to Advance Hydropower and Marine Energy

WASHINGTON, D.C. – Today, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Daniel Simmons announced up to $26.1 million in funding to drive innovative industry-led technology solutions to advance the marine and hydrokinetics (MHK) industry and increase hydropower's ability to serve as a flexible grid resource. The Water Power Technologies Office (WPTO) will select projects that aim to increase affordability of hydropower and marine energy, strengthen U.S. manufacturing competitiveness, and build on Department-wide energy storage initiatives to improve the capability of technologies to deliver value to the grid.    

"This opportunity is critical to advancing new water technologies that harness energy from our nation's rivers and oceans," said Assistant Secretary Simmons. "By supporting early-stage research and development, these next-generation water power technologies have the potential to reduce energy costs for American consumers and significantly increase the reliability of our electricity system."

Area of Interest One: Hydropower Operational Flexibility

Hydropower has significant capabilities for flexible operation, making it well-positioned to contribute to system reliability and resilience in an evolving electricity system. Today, the complexity of multi-use constraints affects many hydropower plants, and together with the wide variability in plant configurations across the fleet, understanding the fleet's potential for flexibility is a formidable challenge. This area seeks to quantify the flexible capabilities of hydropower and advance operational strategies to increase such flexibility to better serve an evolving grid.

  • Area of Interest (AOI) 1a, Quantify Hydropower Capabilities for Operational Flexibility, seeks a comprehensive framework to catalog and account for the different types of flexibility that hydropower plants can provide.

  • AOI 1b, Operational Strategies for Increasing Hydropower Flexibility, seeks research and development of operational strategies that enable enhanced provision of flexibility services at individual hydropower plants or combinations of plants within the fleet.

Area of Interest Two: Low Head Hydropower and In-Stream Hydrokinetic Technologies

Low-head hydropower and hydrokinetic river current energy converter (CEC) technologies have the potential to generate a significant amount of electricity from the nation's rivers and to support the resiliency of the U.S. electricity system. The WPTO will provide funding in this area of interest to projects that focus on the development of two types of technologies – standard modular hydropower (SMH) and current energy converters (CEC). CEC technologies extract kinetic energy from rivers without the need for a dam or diversion, whereas SMH technologies use dams or other structures with turbines to create head — differences in water elevation — and generate power.

  • AOI 2a Modular Technologies for Low-Head Hydropower Applications will focus on the design and production of entirely new standardized, modular hydropower technologies for low-head applications (30 feet or less).

  • AOI 2b, Modular Technologies for River Current Energy Converter Applications focuses on developing and testing CEC systems that can be efficiently deployed and retrieved without the need for significant port or on-site infrastructure and specialized vessels.

Area of Interest Three: Advancing Wave Energy Device Design

Marine renewable energy technologies, like wave energy converters (WEC), are still at early stages of development and require thorough design, prototyping, and testing before deployment. The WPTO will provide funding in this area of interest to projects that will drive performance improvements in WEC devices in preparation for open-water testing where wave energy has the greatest energy capture potential and lowest unit costs.

Area of Interest Four: Marine Energy Centers Research Infrastructure Upgrades

Advancing technologies towards commercialization requires ongoing testing at all levels of technological development. The limited availability of testing facilities with proper infrastructure equipped to create real-world wave and current environments to fully characterize their performance and reliability of prototypes is a challenge for the industry. The WPTO will provide funding in this area of interest to projects funded under this area of interest to upgrade necessary infrastructure at existing National Marine Renewable Energy Centers (NMRECs) to enable broader industry access and reduce technical barriers to incubating advanced marine and hydrokinetic technologies.

For more information on water power research, development, and testing please visit EERE Water Power Technology Office's website.

Apr 1, 2019

Trader Joe’s Phasing Out Single-Use Plastics Nationwide Following Customer Petition

By Madison Dapcevich

As the world suffocates from its plastic addiction, a growing number of businesses are stepping up to the plate to reduce their plastic waste. Most recently, Trader Joe's announced that it will be taking steps to cut back on plastic and other packaging waste after a petition launched by Greenpeace harnessed nearly 100,000 signatures.

At the end of last year, the company announced several improvements geared towards making packaging more sustainable in an effort to eliminate more than 1 million pounds of plastic from stores. Already, the retailer has stopped offering single-use plastic carryout bags nationwide and is replacing plastic produce bags and Styrofoam meat trays with biodegradable and compostable options.

"As a neighborhood grocery store, we feel it is important for us to be the great neighbor our customers deserve. Part of that means better managing our environmental impact," Kenya Friend-Daniel, public relations director for Trader Joe's, told EcoWatch in an email. "As we recently shared with our customers, we are working to reduce the amount of packaging in our stores and while we have made a number of positive changes in this space, the world is ongoing."

Each year, enough plastic is thrown away to circle the earth a whopping four times. Despite that, just one-quarter of plastics produced in the U.S. is recycled even though recycling plastic takes 88 percent less energy than making it from raw materials. If just three-quarters of plastics were recycled, the Recycling Coalition of Utah says people could save an estimated 1 billion gallons of oil and 44 million cubic yards of landfill space annually.

"Every minute of every single day the equivalent of a truckload of plastic enters our oceans. Not only are these plastics hurting or killing marine animals, they are impacting all of us through our seafood, sea salt, tap water, and even the air we breathe," Greenpeace U.S.A. plastics campaigner David Pinsky told EcoWatch. "We know that we can't recycle our way out of this crisis, as only 9 percent of the plastics ever made have actually been recycled."

In recent years, a number of companies have taken the lead in reducing plastic waste, including United Kingdom food retailer A.S.D.A., who plans to remove single-use cups and cutlery this year. McDonald's says that 100 percent of its packaging will come from renewable, recycled or certified sustainable sources within the next seven years while water company Evian plans to go carbon neutral and plastic free by 2020. It's a solid start in battling the so-called "war on plastics," one that Trader Joe's says is just a small part of its "never-ending work."

Indeed, plastic has been found on every continent – including Antarctica – and at the bottom of the world's deepest waters.

"For far too long, corporations have deflected blame and made the issue of plastics about individual responsibility, but it's time for the world's largest corporations and retailers to show some accountability. The only way we are going to tackle this crisis is by pressuring corporations and governments to move away from throwaway plastics for good, and toward systems of reuse," said Pinsky.

Mar 21, 2019

EPA Identifies 40 Chemicals to Prioritize for Risk Evaluation

WASHINGTON  — Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is publishing a list of 40 chemicals to begin the prioritization process – the initial step in a new process of reviewing chemicals currently in commerce under the amended Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA).

"EPA continues to demonstrate its commitment to the successful and timely implementation of the Frank R. Lautenberg Chemical Safety for the 21st Century Act," said EPA Administrator Andrew Wheeler. "We are delivering on the promise of Lautenberg to better assess and manage existing chemicals in commerce and provide greater certainty and transparency to the American public."

"Initiating a chemical for high or low prioritization does not mean EPA has determined it poses unreasonable risk or no risk to human health or the environment; it means we are beginning the prioritization process set forth in Lautenberg," said Alexandra Dapolito Dunn, Assistant Administrator for EPA's Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention.

The Agency is releasing this list in order to provide the public an opportunity to submit relevant information such as the uses, hazards, and exposure for these chemicals. A docket has been opened for each of the 40 chemicals. The publication of this list in the Federal Register initiates a 90-day public comment period. Publication also activates a statutory requirement for EPA to complete the prioritization process in the next nine to 12 months, allowing EPA to designate 20 chemicals as high priority and 20 chemicals as low priority by December 2019.

TSCA requires EPA to publish this list of 40 chemicals to begin the prioritization process to designate 20 chemicals as "high-priority" for subsequent risk evaluation and to designate 20 chemicals as "low-priority," meaning that risk evaluation is not warranted at this time.

One of the chemicals identified for high-priority evaluation is formaldehyde, a chemical that has been studied by EPA's Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) program for many years.

"Moving forward evaluating formaldehyde under the TSCA program does not mean that the formaldehyde work done under IRIS will be lost," added Dunn. "In fact, the work done for IRIS will inform the TSCA process. By using our TSCA authority EPA will be able to take regulatory steps; IRIS does not have this authority," she noted.

When prioritization is complete, chemicals designated as high priority will begin a 3-year risk evaluation process to determine if the chemical, under the conditions of use, presents an unreasonable risk to human health and the environment. The designation of a chemical as a low priority means that further risk evaluation is not warranted at this time.

The 20 high priority candidate chemicals include seven chlorinated solvents, six phthalates, four flame retardants, formaldehyde, a fragrance additive, and a polymer pre-curser. EPA has received a manufacturer request for a risk evaluation of two additional phthalates and is currently determining whether the request contains the minimum needed elements to proceed under EPA's regulations. If complete, EPA has 15 days to provide notice of such a request.

The 20 low priority candidate chemicals have been selected from EPA's Safer Chemicals Ingredients List, which includes chemicals that have been evaluated and determined to meet EPA's safer choice criteria.

Mar 18, 2019

Preventing Illness from Silica Dust

Workers in construction and manufacturing jobs are often exposed to respirable crystalline silica, which is released when cutting or drilling into stone and concrete. Breathing silica dust is dangerous and can lead to serious and often fatal illnesses.

There are steps employers must take to protect workers by reducing exposure to dust. These steps include using controls like wet methods and ventilation. Respirators can be used, but only if other methods are not protective enough.

The following resources provide guidance for how employers can protect workers from hazardous exposures to silica dust.


Photo: Wet methods and ventilation can reduce dust exposures.
Image courtesy National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)

Resources

Silica Safety Resources for Stone Fabricators – CDPH web page

Respirable Crystalline Silica Standards – Cal/OSHA web page

Work Safely with Silica – CPWR website

Silica topic page – NIOSH


Mar 6, 2019

Attorneys Implore Judge to Keep Sailors’ Fukushima Case in U.S.

SAN DIEGO (CN) – Former Senator John Edwards and his co-counsel implored a federal judge Wednesday not to dismiss claims from U.S. service members who say they were exposed to radiation while aboard U.S. ships sent to render aid after the 2011 earthquake and tsunami in Fukushima, Japan.

"We have 500 sailors who are badly hurt and some of them are dead. We have not been able to ask them a single question under oath … at the end of the day these folks just want their day in court," Edwards told U.S. District Judge Janis Sammartino.

But Sammartino said at the beginning of the nearly three-hour court hearing she was inclined to dimiss the claims against Tokyo Electric Power Co. – or TEPCO – and General Electric for lack of personal jurisdiction.

U.S. sailors filed a class action in the Southern District of California in 2012 claiming radiation they were exposed to following the meltdown of a nuclear power plant in Fukushima, Japan while aboard U.S. vessels on a humanitarian mission has caused cancer, brain tumors, birth defects in their children and other rare health problems. Some have even died, according to their attorneys.

If U.S. courts dismiss the two related cases – Cooper et al. v. TEPCO et al. and Bartel et al. v. Tokyo Electric Power Company Inc. et al. – the sailors could bring their claims in Japan under its Compensation for Nuclear Damage Act.

Sammartino did clarify throughout the hearing that she would not waste her or the attorneys' time by holding a court hearing if she wasn't going to consider their arguments.

Class attorney Charles Bonner of Sausalito, California implored the judge not to dismiss the litigation, noting that attorneys have not been able to conduct discovery in the case, and that the defendants' motions to dismiss were "based on legal arguments," not facts.

Bonner suggested class counsel needed to obtain contracts between GE, which designed and helped to maintain the nuclear reactors for 40 years in Fukushima, and TEPCO, which operated the plant. Bonner said the contracts likely contain a choice-of-law provision that would indicate whether the parties would agree to litigate in the U.S. or Japan.

"Our sailors have already been here five years. They need some resolution in this court," Bonner said.

TEPCO attorney Gregory Stone of Munger Tolles  & Olson in Los Angeles said the case has seen new developments in the few years since Sammartino found it should not be dismissed – a decision affirmed by the Ninth Circuit.

Those new developments include three times as many cases filed in Japan over the nuclear meltdown, which Stone said "demonstrates the Japanese interest in resolving these claims."

TEPCO has paid 8.163 trillion yen, or $76 billion – one percent of Japan's total GDP – to resolve claims stemming from the disaster, "a huge amount of money for a government to designate to one incident," Stone said.

Read full at Source:

NEW Anthropologist-led FEMA Report on national preparedness

The publication of a new 38-page FEMA Report, Building Cultures of Preparedness, an initiative funded by FEMA Higher Education to present research related to FEMA's new Strategic Plan for 2018-2022, "Building a Culture of Preparedness."

The report is the first FEMA work to be authored by environmental and cultural anthropologists, joined by practitioners and academic colleagues. The majority of authors are members of the Culture and Disaster Action Network (CADAN) organized to bring local and cultural knowledge into disaster policy and practice.


Preparedness strategies to date have increased first responder and government capabilities, but individual and community progress towards enhanced levels of preparedness has been limited. Authors of the new report suggest that achieving the 2018–2022 Strategic Plan's vision of enhanced preparedness requires a bottom-up approach to close these gaps.

Highlighting the vast diversity of American communities and households, the report demonstrates that a one-size-fits-all strategy is not well-suited to the demands of variable and distinctive environments – a national Culture of Preparedness will have to be built one community at a time. Preparedness is a local matter, requiring solutions tailored to different cultural contexts and embraced by communities. Achieving the reality of a resilient nation as envisioned in the Strategic Plan requires us to think in the plural, building "Culture(s) of Preparedness."

The report lays out four Guiding Principles for building Cultures of Preparedness followed by practical strategies and examples as well as successful outcomes in real-world settings.

The report's authors include:
Katherine E. Browne, (lead author) Colorado State University / CADAN
Laura Olson, (lead author) Georgetown University, Emergency & Disaster Management Program / CADAN
Jenny Hegland, Jenny Hegland Consulting
Ana-Marie Jones, Interpro Inc. 
Julie Maldonado, Livelihoods Knowledge Exchange Network (LiKEN) / CADAN
Elizabeth Marino, Oregon State University / CADAN Keely Maxwell, Environmental Protection Agency / CADAN
Eric Stern, University of Albany-SUNY, College of Emergency Preparedness, Homeland Security, and Cyber-Security
Wendy Walsh, FEMA Emergency Management Higher Education Program
 

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Feb 27, 2019

New HHS-sponsored research provides new tool and updated guidance on mass chemical decontamination

More than a million first responders and emergency managers in the United States now have ascience-based chemical decontamination decision tool and updated guidance on how best to decontaminate a massive number of people after chemical exposure.

The decision-support tool and guidance, as well as the scientific studies on which they are based, were completed under a contract between the University of Hertfordshire in the United Kingdom and the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA), part of the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response (ASPR) within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

This second edition of the guidance, called Primary Response Incident Scene Management or PRISM, incorporates new scientific evidence on emergency self-decontamination, hair decontamination, the interactions of chemicals with hair, and the effects of a combined decontamination strategy referred to as the "triple protocol".

PRISM introduces the 'triple protocol' comprised of disrobing and conducting dry decontamination, wet decontamination using the ladder pipe system with high volume/low pressure water deluges from fire trucks, and technical (or specialist) decontamination. The clinical research showed that, taken together, the three steps of the triple protocol remove 99.9 percent of chemical contamination.

The latest clinical evidence indicates that the triple protocol approach to decontamination is faster and more effective than traditional methods for treating chemically contaminated patients. The research also demonstrated that immediate "dry" decontamination using any available absorbent material can be highly effective as a stand-alone procedure when performed under the instruction of first responders, removing up to 99 percent of contamination.

The guidance suggests that emergency plans should address how the community will take specific preparedness actions. One important action would be to make enough absorbent materials available on emergency response vehicles so that emergency dry decontamination can begin as quickly as possible. Plans also should include how the community will provide washcloths and towels for use in wet decontamination, and blankets or temporary clothes to protect patients from hypothermia afterwards. Hypothermia would be of particular concern in the winter in colder areas.

To further aid first responders and emergency managers, experts from BARDA, ASPR and the National Library of Medicine (NLM) at the National Institutes of Health collaborated with the University of Hertfordshire researchers to devise a decision-support tool called ASPIRE or the Algorithm Suggesting Proportionate Incident Response Engagement. The tool helps responders determine which decontamination approaches will work best in a given situation.

ASPIRE and the guidance are integrated into the Chemical Hazards Emergency Medical Management (CHEMM) web-based resource created by ASPR and NLM as part of a suite of preparedness and emergency response tools that includes the CHEMM Intelligent Syndromes Tool (CHEMM-IST), Dermal Exposure Risk Management and Logic for Emergency Preparedness and Response (DERMaL eToolkit), and now ASPIRE. The guidance and ASPIRE also are incorporated into the latest edition of the WISER CHEMM mobile app, which is expected to be available in the coming days.

The PRISM guidance splits its information into three online volumes. The first volume explains the technical and scientific evidence, identifies capability gaps, and describes the corresponding rationale which underpins the revised incident response process. The second volume focuses on the practical aspects of the incident response with an accompanying rationale but no supporting technical information. This volume is intended for use in developing training and exercises. The third volume summarizes only practical and critical elements of the response process.  This volume is intended to be a quick resource for use during an incident response.

The guidance can be found at www.medicalcountermeasures.gov.

EPA Releases First Major Update to Chemicals List in 40 Years

PAINT.ORG On Feb. 19, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued an update of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Inventory listing the chemicals that are actively being manufactured, processed and imported in the United States. A key result of the update is that less than half of the total number of chemicals on the current TSCA Inventory – 47 percent or 40,655 of the 86,228 chemicals – are currently active in commerce. It will be illegal for companies to manufacture, import or mix chemicals not designated as "active in commerce." EPA's TSCA Inventory Reset rule established the process by which substances on the TSCA Inventory are designated as "active" or "inactive." Now that the TSCA Inventory has been "reset," no one is permitted to manufacture or process an inactive chemical substance without first submitting a notification to EPA.

The final inventory will be in effect on May 20, 2019. As of the effective date, companies must submit a Form B notification prior to manufacturing or processing a chemical with an inactive designation.  In the interim period, EPA will accept any corrections to the inventory also on a Form B submission.  EPA has not provided information about enforcement after the 90-day phase in period.

 As recently as 2018, the TSCA Inventory showed over 86,000 chemicals available for commercial production and use in the United States. Until this update, it was not known which of these chemicals on the TSCA Inventory were in commerce. Under amended TSCA – The Frank R. Lautenberg Chemical Safety for the 21 Century Act – EPA was required to update the list and designate which chemicals are active or inactive in U.S. commerce.

More than 80 percent (32,898) of the chemicals in commerce have identities that are not Confidential Business Information (CBI), increasing public access to additional information about them. For the less than 20 percent of the chemicals in commerce that have confidential identities, EPA is developing a rule outlining how the Agency will review and substantiate all CBI claims seeking to protect the specific chemical identities of substances on the confidential portion of the TSCA Inventory.

From August 11, 2017 through October 5, 2018, chemical manufacturers and processors provided information on which chemicals were manufactured, imported or processed in the United States over the past 10 years, the period ending June 21, 2016. The agency received more than 90,000 responses, which represents a significant reporting effort by manufacturers, importers and processors.

Next Batch of High Priority Chemicals

EPA is expected to publish its next list of 20 high priority candidate chemicals by March 22, 2019. EPA must decide at least 10 of these from the remaining TSCA workplan chemicals, although it will probably select more than 10, if not all 20, from the TSCA workplan. EPA will select chemicals like the first 10, such as solvents or pigments. Several workplan chemicals are relevant to paints, coatings, sealants and adhesives, as noted in the following table.

TSCA-list

ACA will remain engaged with EPA as it considers chemicals from its TSCA workplan.

Source: PAINT.ORG