Feb 28, 2005

Energy and environment - Alert

Articles-by-subject alert: Energy and environment
From Economist.com, Monday February 28th 2005

The following have been newly published on Economist.com:

Rising sea temperatures
More evidence for man-made global warming, from a study of the oceans ... more

Restoring the marshes of southern Iraq
Water is now flowing again into many of the drained areas. But it may be too late to turn the clock back ... more

Sturgeon and caviar
The allure of caviar obscures a murkier truth ... more

Mexico's oil dilemmas E+
By shunning foreigners, politicians are set to doom their country's oil industry ... more

The world's most valuable company E+
The meaning of Exxon Mobil's triumph ... more

Russia's oil-stabilisation fund E+
The fiscal and political implications of a row over Russia's oil revenues ... more

Indian oil and gas E+
Pipelines promise to bring energy and, perhaps, unity ... more

Cleaning up nuclear sites E+
Turning nuclear sites into wildlife refuges isn't that easy ... more

America, Europe, Iran and its nukes E+
Now Russia is complicating the already tangled diplomacy over how to curb Iran's nuclear ambitions ... more

Feb 24, 2005

Tools that spank the best industry software

Tools that spank the best industry software.

(As requested by http://mjpiette.blogspot.com AKA Maurice Chevalier)

LEGAL FREE MUSIC???– Load Winamp (see below) and then install Streamripper . Open “media library” in Winamp , then select “internet radio”. Find you favorite “stream” of music and then select “start” on the Streamripper program.

DON’T FORGET! – You can also watch FREE movies and T.V. shows from arounf the world in Winamp “media library”. ENJOY!

STOP – Hackers, spyware and virus’s forever

I have a nearly unlimited budget for anti-virus, spyware and firewall software… however, I still use these free tools over all the rest. Imagine the best protection on your computer for FREE.

Follow these simple instructions: FIRST disconnect your computer from your internet connection. Then, UNINSTALL all antivirus and firewall software. After that, install Sygate Firewall (reboot), install Avast Antivirus (reboot), and last install Spyware Doctor .

Connect back to the internet and run “updates” immediately” to get the most protection (reboot). After that run a FULL scan using Avast Antivirus and Spyware Doctor . I will guarantee that these programs out perform anything you have used.

Remember, you have to register Avast Antivirus for it to keep working - IT’s FREE.

Ranked in order of cool (Click title for link)

Winamp Full 5.08
Play and organize a variety of audio and video files with this popular player.

Streamripper for Winamp 5
Download entire genres of streaming music from Internet broadcasters.

Protection Tools

StreamRipper32 1.61 (Stand alone)
Record streaming MP3s as individual files on your hard drive.

Avast Home Edition 4.5
Scan your computer for viruses, worms, and Trojan horses.

Sygate Personal Firewall 5.6
Set up your own personal firewall.

Spyware Doctor 3.1
Detect and remove spyware, adware, Trojan horses, keyloggers, and tracking threats from your PC.

Best web imaging and Blogging tools (Googles got it going on!)

Blogger.com – Is the best hands down for tools, access, easy of use, updating and for people to “find you”. You can try the rest… and you can also walk around in circles or watch the WWF NASCAR series is you want to waste you mind and time.

Picasa Photo Organizer – O.K. I use and love photoshop, cadd and all of the $$$ programs but, this FREE one by google is WOW easy to use and one of the best picture organizers. If you want to take 500 pictures on a trip and have them on a website or blog in 5 minutes… this is the ONLY program that can pull that off.

http://www.hello.com/ If you have Picasa and a blog you’ll need this. Not perfect but it is easy to use and understand. It “plugs” in to Picasa and when you want to share pictures on your “blog” just click the hello icon in Picasa to post your pictures.

DON’T FORGET “FireFox http://www.mozilla.org/products/firefox/

FireFox give you the privacy and speed you need in a browser.

You can get “live” news feeds, weather and music all in the browser you surf with. PLUS it blocks all the “pop” us and most java based viruses on the net.

What’s the “Buzz”?

Mobile FireFox, you load it on a thumb drive (USB drive) and your entire internet surfing and privacy goes with you. Your passwords, email, etc… WOW it is COOOL!


Remember a lot of FREE stuff is free for a reason and is usually garbage or spyware.

ONLY load and use software recommended by a professional who uses it themselves.

Find best free tools: http://www.download.com (A lot of it is fluff but, a few are keepers ;-)


Google tools: http://www.voelspriet.nl/googletools.htm

Feb 23, 2005

FireFox Rules - Here is help to make it better!

Ok, its no secret..Firefox is my favorite browser.. infact, if you are not using it (for example using... Gasp, IE) you need to change. Well I decided to write "help" article on how to make it even better. Using a few tweaks here and there, we can make FireFox considerably faster, enable advanced tab options, make newer versions compatible with older extentions, run directly from a flash disk, and on and on.

First, Lets change some hidden options to make it faster...

Open Firefox 1.0 and in the address bar type: about:config
1. Find browser.tabs.showSingleWindowModePrefs and double click on it so it = true
2. Find network.http.pipelining and double click on it so it = true
3. Find network.http.pipelining.maxrequests double click on it and change it from 4 to 100

What do these changes do?
1. Then enables advanced tab options in your Tools/Options page
2. This enables option #3.
3. This makes FF use 8 threads to each page.. Bascially, if you thought FF was fast before, try it after this.

Second, lets make it look better...
Visit the Mozilla Firefox theme page and select a theme that looks good to you.
I personally like the Noia eXtreme skin, but choose one that looks good to you.

Now lets make it work FOR us...
One of the sweetest thing about Firefox is the ability to use extentions. At the time of this writing, there are 226 extentions that we can use to make it better.. I will only touch on a few of them that I use. (Alphabetically Sorted)
Adblock: Remove inline ads.

Bookmarks Synchronizer: Save your bookmarks to an XML file, and sync with an FTP server. Keep your work/home bookmarks current!

Digger: Navigate to parent directories, switch to ftp equivalent of site, climb subdomains, etc.. Very helpful in "scouting" a site.

Download Sort: Automatically send downloads to specific folders based on file's extention.

Gmail Notifier: Lets you know if you have new gmail

Google Pagerank Status: Lets you see the Google PageRank of the page you are visiting.

refspoof: "Spoof" your referer.

Spiderzilla: Download an entire site to a local directory.

Super DragAndGo: Drag a link to blank space on a webpage, and it will open it in a new tab.

SwitchProxy: Manage and switch between multiple proxies. Make sure to read my article on finding and useing proxies.

User Agent Switcher: Switch the user agent of your browser.

x: Gives a Toolbar "paranoia" button, click it and it can clear history, form info, saved passwords, download history, cookies, & cache.

Firefox on a USB Thumbdrive
Check out the article on Portable Firefox 1.0

Tell Firefox what we want to see (and what we don't)
Sick of Google Ads on everyone's page? Well lets tell firefox that we don't want to see them anymore. This hack will remove 95% of all Ads, including google Ads. (Yes, even from Gmail. Warning, Removing these ads may violate the TOS of Gmail)

This hack uses the magic of CSS and a Firefox configuration file named UserContent.css. We are going to edit this file, I suggest you download the plugin ChomEdit to make your job easier. (Go install it now & come back after restart)

Ok, now that you have ChromEdit installed, open Firefox and click on Tools / Edit User files. A new window will appear that has five tabs across the top. Click on the tab that is labeled userContent.css. Next click on the link below and copy all the text. Then paste it into the userContent.css file, then click the Save button.

Now restart your browser.. Tada, Google ads are gone!

From Digital Media Minute:

The above rules make use of the *!important* property value to override any rules that may already exist within the page that is being loaded. In the first rule, GMail has an element with an id of rh and we are setting the tables that have a class equal to metatable within that element, to not display (ie . display:none)
A word of caution, we are only hiding the ads from displaying. They are actually still there, just not visible. This means that Google is still indexing your email messages to provide you with “targetted ads”. It is also worth noting that as this hack is based upon creating CSS rules for existing GMail code, it is very possible that this hack will break as GMail continues to evolve.

Other Contributions:
yankeesfan: to get older extensions to work in 1.0, edit extensions.lastAppVersion from '1.0' to '.10'. Bugmenot and others will now work.

Source: http://www.i-hacked.com/content/view/59/42/

Cool Sites to Bookmark

May want to "bookmark" some of these...

Whoisit and domain and track emails all on one site

How to use it????

Find your I.P. (see link above) and find out info ;-)

Other cool ref sites:
About people:

Criminal history:


Arial photo of Matt' house?



My favorite of the week:

Find everything....Google:

Regs & Law


Strindberg and Helium

Funnier than it looks and a complete waste of time!! Miseryyyy!

Secret Life of Plants

Some cool time-lapse movies of plants in action. The descriptions are super informative too!

Ants with tree magnetism

Some researchers at UC Berkely and U Texas have found that certain species of tropical canopy ants will do a cool mid-air ninja move and glide back towards the tree trunk. Be sure to check out the movie too (RealPlayer). Also cool is the recent Science News article which quotes John Longino!! Link to article.

NASA World Wind

Holy Giant world of satellite imagery Batman!!!

THis is a very cool program that you can download for free from NASA that allows you to zoom in with surprisingly good detail on a planet full of Landsat and other imagery. For the US, they also include USGS 1 m DOQQ's and scans of 7 1/2 and 15 -minute Topo maps.

Note: you should have a decent video card with 3D acceleration and a high speed internet connection for best results. Hope you enjoy!

**But wait - there's more!! For those who just cant wait to see the new SEM, NASA also has this cool program Virtual Lab. Not as cool as WorldWind, but nice nonetheless.. (all via Metafilter)

Stay informed ... via the CAL

New proof that man has caused global warming via timesonline.co.uk -- like, duh.

SGR 1806-20 says "ka-boom" in gamma. via BBC News -- too bad we missed it due to cloud cover...

Solar + Stirling engine (?!?) equals juice! via Pop Sci. -- Been waiting for someone to exhume Stirling...

One for the Kid in us all: http://www.scitoys.com/ found via del.icio.us.

Okay, how bout something useful.

A pretty thorough list of Windows/DOS commands to impress your friends with. Be the first to dazzle your friends with the dreaded {WIN+R, control timedate.cpl} combination! Yes, you could have just double clicked on the time at the bottom right of the screen, but that wouldn't have shown off your m4d sk1llz, now would it?

Posted by Brian at 11:36 PM | Comments (1)

Time to populate this sucker

Exhibit A:

http://www.xs4all.nl/~lrvk/lejo/dj.html (Flash Req'd) Brilliant!

Feb 22, 2005

Acid Rain and Associated Soil Chemistry

Acid Rain and Associated Soil Chemistry

http://www.epa.gov/airmarkets/acidrain/ The EPA's site on Acid Rain has information on what acid rain is, how you measure it, what its effects are, and how we reduce it. There are also links to some science experiments and learning activities.

http://www.ns.ec.gc.ca/msc/as/as_acid.html This website is maintained by Canada's environmental agency. They have a lot of information on Acid Rain including a link to Environment Canada's Air Pollution web site. They also have links to a couple scientific reports.

http://qlink.queensu.ca/~4lrm4/table.htm This website includes a lot of information on acid rain. This information includes effects on materials, atmosphere, architecture, trees and soils, lakes and streams, and humans. There are lots of links from this site to other acid rain sites.

http://bqs.usgs.gov/acidrain/ This USGS site has on line data and reports for acid rain, atmospheric deposition, and precipitation chemistry. It would be a good place to get technical information on the acid rain problem.

http://water.usgs.gov/pubs/acidrain/ This web address is from the USGS and shows the trends in precipitation chemistry in the United States from 1983-94. The article also lists the data and analysis of the trends of precipitation that followed the passing of the clean air act until 94'. The site is full of data and statistics so the information is in a ruff form but if picked through shows some wonderful data on the chemistry happening in the precipitation over the U.S.

http://water.usgs.gov/nwc/NWC/pH/html/ph.html Another USGS site containing a national map showing pH of precipitation at 190 sites participating in the National Atmospheric Deposition Program. Can select individual states on map to obtain information about the state. Links to NADP main web page with additional maps and publications on acid deposition.

http://qlink.queensu.ca/~4lrm4/ The ABC's of Acid Rain. A very basic website, but makes it easy to understand. Includes definitions and effects on the atmosphere, architecture, humans, lakes and tress. Also includes ways to reduce our NOx and SO2 emissions.

Acid Rain-a website designed for the Database for Use in Schools Project. It covers questions like: How big a problem is acid rain? What can we do about it? What has the Government done? A good basic overview.

http://ag.udel.edu/soilchem/researchconducte.html Studies performed by the University of Delaware Environmental Soil Chemistry Lab can be downloaded as PDF files from this website. Most of the studies involved advanced spectroscopy on contaminated soils.

http://soils.ag.uidaho.edu/soilorders/12orders.htm This contains several pages of very clear definitions and descriptions of the twelve soil orders. National soil survey maps with color coded dominant suborders and photographs on soil characteristics are also included. This site will help to recognize which soils are most susceptible to leeching due to acidic deposition.

http://www.madison.k12.wi.us/stugeon/swoope.htm This site is run by a Wisconsin school district. It contains a database from seven rain pH studies performed in the last four years by K-12 schools around the world. Background facts on acid rain and frequently asked questions are contained in two links. Another link has ideas for labs and activities to explore acid deposition. Most studies in the database, SWOOP, are the results of daily, month-long acid rain averages reported by schools internationally.

www-personal.umich.edu/~gtdeo/areffects.html This article is good for giving the individual with little knowledge or ability to comprehend acid rain the direct effects it will have to themselves or their community. It talks about specific species of fish and at what acidity they perish and what level of pollution it takes to achieve this. The site also discusses acid rains effects on buildings monuments and people.

www.biopoint.com/msla/acidrain.html This is a great web site that offers up many other web links to the acid rain resources around the web. The site gives a comprehensive breakdown to the main points on acidrain and gives you a summery about that certain aspect of acid rain and then shows you links to reliable sources on that subject.

http://wunmr.wustl.edu/EduDev/Water/acidrain.html This is a very well done paper about an Inorganic Reactions Experiment from a couple of chemistry professors at Washington University. The paper lays out their experiment then explains the findings and what they mean in the production of acid rain. The paper then proceeds with graphs and diagrams of the reactions taking place in the production of acid rain. The paper finishes off with discussing the effects of acid rain on buildings and monuments.

http://www.dec.state.ny.us/website/dfwmr/habitat/acidrain.htm synopsis of acid rain impacts on forests, fish etc., mainly in the Adirondack and Catskill Mtns. of NY

http://www.adk.org/html/acid_rain.htm Adirondack Mountain Club site, reports on the Clean Air Act, mercury, forest health, fish impacts, pending legislation

http://www.icsu-scope.org International scientific organization with members including most major national science organizations in most major countries. A worldwide network of scientists and organizations develop syntheses and review scientific knowledge on current issues. Publish reports, state of the science reports and evalutions (many available full text online). Have issued recent report on sulphur cycle and climate change.

Institute for Global Communication
The IGC website has a section called EcoNet that is an advocacy site. There is a page on acid rain with lists for conferences, publications and numerous resources. This site has good information on acid rain. It has tons of links to other good environmentally concerned sites with resources on atmosphere & climate, energy resources, and sea and water resources.

http://www.igc.org/acidrain IGC Internet. Want to take a more in depth look at acid rain, check out this website. Read the briefing from an acid rain conference in Norway. Click through different magazine publications from around the world to see how other countries handle the acid rain problem. There are also many information links about the ongoing struggle with acid rain in this country. How is our country monitoring acid rain damage and what are we doing to control it? You can find answers to these questions here.

http://ess.geology.ufl.edu/ess/Labs/TermPapersFall99-00/Trujillo/Acid%20Rain.htm This is a site that shows the effects of acid rain on aquatic environments. it gives a brief introduction to how aquatic environments are acidified and identifies the major components of the pollution contributing to acid rain. It gives a very good table that shows as the acidity increased what parts of the ecosystem are affected.

This site gives the Natural Gas Councils reasons why burning natural gas will help to reduce atmospheric SO2 and therefore reduce acid rain. It also gives some details about the laws around emissions and info on coal burning emissions.

This site about suggested lab experiments surrounding acid rain suggests using lichens to indicate atmospheric levels of SO2. I am interested in this because of the ubiquity of lichens in our environment and their ability to shed light on the air quality of a place.

http://www.environment.about.com/cs/acidrain Acid Rain General Information. Again, I love about.com because they come up with great links and information on what you are looking for. On this search I typed in Acid Rain: General Information and got six articles of various interest. Some of the topics include: the effects of acid rain on Maya Ruins in the Yucatan Peninsula; effects of acid rain on terrestrial ecosystems; and acidification of surface waters. To find more links change your search topic.

www.royal.okanagan.bc.ca/mpidwirn/atmosphereandclimate/acidprecip.html Livin g Landscapes. This website focuses mainly on acid rain and deposition in the Thompson-Okanagon. The authors take you through the whole process of acid rain. There is an introduction; acid deposition formation; effects of acid deposition; acid deposition in
Canada and British Columbia; solutions. This research is very informative and well layed out.

http://www.iclei.org/efacts/acidrain.htm: This website is run by the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives, an international environmental agency (http://www.iclei.org) designed to build a global movement of local governments for the improvement of environmental conditions. The particularly useful portion of the website is an
energy fact sheet dedicated to the discussion of acid rain. The fact sheet contains the following information on acid rain: definition, impacts, chemistry, methods of prevention and conclusions. Furthermore, it contains useful three images: a map of the pH scale, a diagram of the cycles of acidic pollutants, and a map of Canada detailing the ability of soils and bedrock to reduce the acidity of atmospheric deposition.

http://www.emep.int/emis_tables/tab1.html This address is part of the EMEP website, a "Co-operative programme for monitoring and evaluation of the long range transmission of air pollutants in Europe." Emissions tables of certain pollutants are available for the years 1980-1999, showing each European nation's emissions in thousands of tons annually. A prediction for 2010 emissions is also included for each country. The specific pollutants
that are focused on are sulfur, nitrogen oxides, ammonia, non-methane volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, persistent organic pollutants, and heavy metals.

http://www.nysfola.org/acidrain Begins with personal acid lake essay. Has map of US pH levels and other good scientific/chemical descriptions of what is happening.

http://www.nmt.ne.jp/~sanseiu Japanese acid rain site, in Tokushima. Tells what acid rain is but is remarkable for it’s pictures of “melting” architecture and statues. Also shows forest leaf damage.

http://www.msu.edu/~ramseyr1/lbs144/page7.html Goes through causes and effects on lakes and trout. How to reduce acid rain and importance of aluminum with acid rain.

http://www.doc.mmu.ac.uk/aric/eae/Acid_Rain/older/uk_Acid_Rain.html Relays everything going on in UK as result of acid rain. Shows natural and anthropogenic sources.

http://www.acidrain.org/ Swedish NGO Secretariat on Acid Rain
The Secretariat is a joint venture between five Swedish environmental organizations with the intention of bringing about the reduction of emissions of air pollutants. The sight has suggestions for further reading, publications by the organizations and policy initiatives in Sweden pertaining to Acid Rain.

http://www.lehigh.edu/~kaf3/books/reporting/acid.html Acid Rain Backgrounder (1994); Nice summary – outlines what acid rain is; acidity basics; what causes acid rain; aquatic, plant, and forest ecological effects; toxic metals; and economic impacts. A nice quote: Environmental analyst and writer Sandra Postel of Worldwatch Institute says: "Forest effects do not stop at the forest boundary, but ripple to groundwater, streams and lakes which receive acids and metals that break from the forest cycle. Humanity's intimate connection to these forest systems ensures that it will not escape feeling the effects of their demise" (Postel).

http://ens.lycos.com/ens/mar2001/2001L-03-26-06.html "Acid Rain Continues to Damage Northeast Forests", by Cat Lazaroff (Environment News Service). This article discusses that even though damage from acid rain continues to plague northeast forest ecosystems despite decreases in air pollution. Because the systems have been exposed for so long, they are extremely sensitive to any pollution. The study assessed the effects of acid rain in soil, water, and trees, and used models to predict what decreases in emissions are necessary in order to restore the ecosystems.

http://www1.uwex.edu/ces/pubs/pdf/G3305_8.PDF "Acid Rain: Potential Effects of Acidic Deposition on Forest Soil Biology", by G. Voigt and T. May (University of Wisconsin). Well-written, well-organized, and easy to follow. Discusses nutrient movement throughout a forest ecosystem and how it is altered by acidic deposition. Nice flowchart of nutrient movement and chemical responses to deposition of pollution.

http://www.geocities.com/CapeCanaveral/Hall/9111/DOC.HTML "Causes, Effects, and Solutions of Acid Rain", by Sarn Phamornsuwana. This page discusses many of the sources of acid-rain-causing chemicals and their secondary reactions, as well as the chemistry of their harmful effects. It is well-organized and easy to understand.

http://qlink.queensu.ca/~4lrm4/table.htm This Australian information sight is neatly organized with a comprehensive table of contents and no fancy graphics or images to get in the way. They discuss the impact of acid rain on humans, the atmosphere, architecture and aquatic systems. They also have a links page, a source list page and information on reducing emissions.

http://www.inforamp.net/~mcdermot/drink/dra00008.htm A recipe for Acid Rain, the mixed drink.

http://www.soton.ac.uk/~engenvir/environment/air/acid.what.now.html This site, designed for school children is very helpful and descriptive. It has global information about legislation passed in various countries and full color pie circle graphs and maps showing global distribution and wind patterns. It goes into depth on the green house effect and alternative energy sources.

http://www.enn.com/news/enn-stories/1999/04/040299/calcium_2472.asp This is a news article about calcium levels declining in the eastern United States. Calcium is used by trees to help ward off stresses of severe weather and of insects. Scientists from USGS and the Department of the Interior believe that acid rain is to blame for the calcium decline. Calcium reacts to neutralize acid rain, but then is no longer useful to the trees. The article claims
that deforestation is increasing this problem because calcium contained in the trees already will not go back into the ground when they die and decompose.

http://interactive.usask.ca/skinteractive/modules/agriculture/soils/soilchem/ Gives a good overview of soil chemistry processes including: Cation exchange, Ph, and Salinity. From this I learned why fertilizers are able to stick to the ground. The Ph of the soil determines what sorts of microorganisms can live there and thus regulate what plants and other nutrients are able to be in the ground.

http://www.panda.org/resources/publications/sustainability/acidrain/Thesis/af_ch7.htm This is interesting research on how forest fires affect forest degradation from acid rain. His research indicates that the ash layer left behind after a burn is sufficient to protect the forest from acid rain (although he makes no claim as to how long it works). He says that the convention of liming forests to neutralize acid rain is easier and more effective in returning Mg and Ca to the forests than prescribed burning.

http://www.scar.utoronto.ca/~weather/manyp/Effects/fish.html This website is operated by the University of Toronto. The site focuses on the acidified lakes in Ontario as a result of acid rain. It contains a graph of the pH levels and resulting effects on aquatic ecosystems as the Ph becomes more acidic or more alkaline. The site also discusses the issue of aluminum leaching caused by acid rain which caused many fish kills.

http://odin.dep.no/md/html/acid/Eurofor.html This website is operated by the Norwegian Pollution Control Authority. The site contains a lot of good general information about the causes and effects of acid rain. The section of most interest to me was the section, which discusses the loss of forested land in Europe. It contains facts, reports, and graphs concerning the effects on European forests. For example, one graph illustrates the change in average crown densities.

http://odin.dep.no/md/html/acid/Acid.html ACID RAIN. This is a public information site about the effects of acid rain from the Norwegian Pollution Control Authority. There is information on acid rain, the effects of acid rain on soil, plant life, rivers, seas, and fish. They also discuss responsibilities, as either other country (ies) may be the source of pollution, current or in the past, which is causing an increase in acid rain.

This site offers a list of World Wide Web sites that offer information related to acid rain. The sites range from information about acid rain formation, to tracking acid rain by the USGS, to the effects of it. The sites related to the effects cover the effects on human health, to effects of forests, water, and other things.

http://www.agwt.org/Trust_files/info/acid_rain.htm Short and sweet piece on Acid Rain and Ground Water Quality. This article was originally published in The American Well Owner. Details what acid rain is, how it may effect ground water quality, how to buffer a system if it is not buffered naturally and whether or not this should be of concern to the well owner.

http://nadp.sws.uiuc.edu/isopleths/maps2000/ Shows a map of the US and pH levels as well as specific chemical levels. You are able to download a map of the US and the particular chemical and it concentration levels for which you are looking. Chemicals available are as follows: SO4, NO3, NH4, Ca, Mg, K, Na, and Cl.

http://ks.essortment.com/acidraineffect_rqmz.htm how acid rain effects plants and wildlife. Begins with a description of acid depositions and sources. The site then runs blurbs on the effects of acid rain on plant, animal, aquatic and human life. Amusing because it is the most recent site I could find. Advertisements are spliced straight into the test. So much for the lofty heights of science.

http://www.soton.ac.uk/~engenvir/environment/air/acid.home.html This beautiful page has useful information on acid rain and is easy to use. It discusses some important topics such as what acid rain is, how it is caused, and what out government is doing about it. The site seems to be for use in schools and has an interesting questionnaire that you can fill out at the end.

http://www.lanl.gov/projects/cctc This site, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, is dedicated entirely to a project called the Clean Coal Technology Project run by the National Energy Technology Laboratory in California. This site lists experiments on alternative energy and fuel, recycling fuel, economic issues, and industry response.

http://www.doc.mmu.ac.uk/aric/eae/Acid_Rain/acid_rain.html This is a website from the United Kingdom that includes a lot of information on acid rain both in general and in Europe. This site discusses the chemistry of air pollution and moisture in the atmosphere, contributing factors such as cars, chimneys, smoke stacks, and includes natural factors as well. The effects of acid rain on wildlife, soils, lakes, and buildings are also included. Different types of modeling and measuring, and international agreements are outlined. For some of the information on this site there is a children's version that can be selected, all of the information is otherwise technical, although there is a very convenient linked glossary.

http://www.angelfire.com/ks/boredwalk This website is an educational website designed for students. First, one selects a related topic under the large category of acid rain. Topics range from chemistry and environment to history or politics/government issues. Next, under each topic there are links to several subtopics and general information about the topic you have selected. I found this site to be very friendly.

http://www.scar.utoronto.ca/~weather/maryp/Effects/fish.html This website is produced by the University of Toronto. It covers the effects of acid rain on aquatic ecosystems, especially focusing on the lakes near Toronto. This site includes photos of fish from healthy versus acidic lakes, as well as a very informative table on the effects of lowered pH to aquatic ecosystems. A very useful website for the chemist and the biologist.

http://www.utexas.edu/ftp/depts/grg/ustudent/gcraft/fall96/patel/projects/fall96/acidrain Students and faculty at the University of Texas made this site. It is an informational site the basics of acid rain, its causes and effects, ways to prevent acid rain, as well as using GIS to monitor acid rain.

http://www.sepa.org.uk/publications/stateoftheenvironment/stateenv/soeair.htm This page is the air quality page of the Scottish Environmental Protection Agency. It has data concerning the release of SOx and NOx, as well as trends in over the past several decades. The pH of many lakes in Scotland has been affected by acid rain, some to the point of becoming fishless. Recent data show sulphate levels to be dropping and recovery on the way.

This is a Swedish Environmental Protection Agency website. It gives background information on why NOx and SOx reductions are necessary for the region as well as reduction goals. The sight has great links to other Swedish EPA sights of acidification, Sulphur deposition over the last 120 years and more.

http://www.iges.or.jp/ires/a3.pdf This site is a article, pubished in International Review of Environmental Strategies, concerning acid rain is Southern Asia. The paper outlines a means of integrating the region environmental concerns and developing policies the will allow issues that cross borders to be dealt with effectively.

Pollutants in Human Health and Bioaccumulation

Pollutants in Human Health and Bioaccumulation

http://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/cfm/dioxin.cfm?ActType=default This is a great site with links to Pdfs with the most authoritative information on the health effects of dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD and its ilk) and dioxin-like compounds (PCDFs and PCBs that exhibit dioxin like activity) in the Dioxin Reassessment. In addition, there is a link to an inventory and database of releases of dioxin like compounds in the U.S. as well as a dioxin FAQ page. Too good a site to not include because EPA sites have been overkilled.

http://www.nrdc.org Natural Resource Defense Council website. The NRDC is an environmental advocacy group whose mission is to work to ensure a safe and healthy environmental for all living things. There are sections focused on such topics as clean air and energy, global warming and environmental legislation. The site contains full test NRDC press releases on environmental topics as well as quick facts.

http://www.nrdc.org/health/effects/qendoc.asp This is the National Resources Defense Council's website on endocrine disruptors. It is basically a FAQ page, asking and answering general questions like what is an endocrine disruptor and what can I do to avoid exposure.The site provides detailed information on the endocrine system and chemicals that interfere with it.

http://www.psr.org Physicians for Social Responsibility Website Physicians for Social Responsibility represents more than 20,000 physicians, nurses, health care professionals, and concerned citizens devoted to nuclear disarmament, violence prevention and environmental health. PSR began in opposition to nuclear arms and testing. It has expanded to include concern over other global health issues. The website has sections devoted PSR's position on the International Joint Commission's Persistent Organic Pollutant Initiative and the World Health Organization's efforts to contain the spread of malaria. There are also discussion on the safety of our nation's drinking water supply and a publication on environmental endocrine disrupters.

http://www.pmac.net Pest Management at the Crossroads website. The website is designed and managed by Benbrook Consulting Servies and fucuses on biointensive Integrated Pest Mangement (IPM). The site contains a long list of topics related to IPM including genetic engineering, soil quality, cutting edge IPM technology, regulatory status and pesticides. This site provides links to articles and documents dealing with endocrine disruptors.

http://www.aperc.org Alkylphenols and Ethoxylates (APE) Research Council Website The state purpose of the website is to provide information and "promote the safe use of alkylphenols and their derivatives." The site contains general information on APEs, their regulatory status, and product safety information. There is an entire section discussing APEs and endocrine disruption. The articles are informative but biased toward industry, with the selected information showing a weak link, if any, between APEs and endocrine disruption.

http://www.cerc.usgs.gov/endocrine/summary U.S. Geological Survey Website specifically discussing research on endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). The site has links to various research projects looking at potential endocrine disrupters. Projects included look at site specific data and also studies with individual chemicals. An example is an in vivo study of mixtures of EDCs. The information provided by the site is useful in that it shows current USGS research trends but it does not provide enough details. Contacts are provided to obtain more information but it would take time and effort.

http://www.tmc.tulane.edu/ecme Environmental Concepts Made Easy website The website is put together by the Center for Bioenvironmental Research of Tulane and Xavier Universities, New Orleans, LA. The site has subtopics on environmental estrogens, lead in the environment, and biology in space. The environmental estrogen section provides recent headlines on estrogens and estrogen mimics. There is also a more in-depth discussion on the endocrine system and how environmental endocrines, both natural and anthropogenic, alter hormonal systems, where they are found, etc. This site provides a very good, clearly written overview.

http://www.watoxics.org Washington Toxics coalition is a nonprofit organization in Seattle with the goal of identifying and promoting alternatives to chemicals. The site provides information put together by members and staff on chemical toxicity and also has links to other sites. The website contains a special report on endocrine disruption with valuable links to many sites on the toxicity of EDCs.

http://www.ccotis.ca/oshanswers/chemicals/endocrine Canadian Centre for Occupations Health and Safety website. The general website, www.ccotis.ca, has very useful links to chemical databases and access to MSDS. The site is easily searchable. In addition, there is also a link to Canadian environmental regulation. One section of the website focuses on endocrine disrupters. The site briefly describes how the human endocrine system works and provides information on types of hormones. The site discusses chemicals that can potentially disrupt the system and why we should be concerned. This is a fairly general site with good background information but no in-depth, specific pieces of information.

http://www.who.int/pcs/index The International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) website The IPCS was established in 1980 and is a joint program of 3 cooperating organizations; ILO, UNEP,and WHO. The emerging issues section is currently focused on endocrine disrupters. It contains general descriptions of endocrine disrupters and links to a current research inventory and status database. The site has an international focus.

http://www.scorecard.org/pollutionwatch The website called Pollution Watch Scorecard is an environmental service provided by the Canadian Environmental Law Associating, Canadian Environmental Defence Fund, and Environmental Defense. The site is a valuable resource listing the release of chemicals in Canada. The site is searchable by zip code to find data on chemicals released in a particular area. The site lists health effects and regulations on the chemicals. For instance, there is a page listing suspected endocrine disrupters, their CAS registry number, and the reference leading to inclusion of the compound on the list This is a user friendly website.

http://www.agius.com/hew Website created by Raymond Agius, a professor of Occupational and Environmental Medicine at the University of Manchester. The title of the website is Health, Environment and Work (HEW). There is a general discussion on the effects the environment can have on health as well as more specific information on air quality, airborne pollutants, radon, etc. This is a very useful site providing assistance on locating peer reviewed literature and useful search engines. The index of educational resources on occupational environmental medicine and health which leads the user to articles on topics such as lung disease and exposure to lead or radon. The chemistry of the each compound is included in the discussion. One topic focuses on endocrine disrupting chemicals. Raymond Agius gives a summary of the current evidence so far. He also discusses inconsistencies and problems. There are also links to other related sites.

http://e.hormone.tulane.edu This website is based our of the Center for Bioenvironmental Research (CBR) at Tulane University. It is dedicated to helping readers remain at the cutting edge of endocrine disrupting chemicals research. The science portion of the site is not complete at this time but for now there are updates on upcoming and past conferences, lists of books on EDCs, links to a few pertinent news articles and other related sites. The most interesting part of the site at this point is the monthly commentary contributed by a new author each month. The month of March commentary focuses on the hormonal activity of chiral environmental chemicals. The discussion is in-depth and interesting.

http://www.mfe.govt.nz/issues/waste/organochlorines/organo.htm This website is run by the Ministry for the Environment, an agency of the federal government of New Zealand. The webpage that is particularly relevant to my research is the Organochlorines Programme, which contains numerous internal and external links for information on dioxins, persistent organic pollutants (POPs), and organochlorines in general. Additionally, a Health Risk Assessment (HRA) report on the effects/occurence of dioxins in the New Zealand population is available. The Ministry for the Environment also provides access to its Dioxin Action Plan and strategies for reducing dioxin discharge into the air.

http://www.ktl.fi/dioxin/atoc.html This site contains an encyclopedia of dioxins and PCBs and is operated by the Finnish National Public Health Institute (KTL), a government research body. The online encyclopedia is broken into three sections: A-C, D-O and R-Z. In addition to containing a complete list of terms relating to dioxins and PCBs, the encyclopedia also makes data and graphs available to the viewer. Examples of graphs available are PCDD/F body burden in a number of European nations, measured from human milk samples and the markedly increased body burden of PCDD/F in a human who consumed the worst-contaminated chicken from the Belgian chicken incident.

http://www.cpes.sussex.ac.uk/users/jms/bcenv/lec13/13.html This webpage is part of the School of Chemistry, Physics and Environmental Science (CPES) of the University of Sussex, Brighton, England. Simply titled "Insecticides," the page contains lecture notes, diagrams and definitions related to insecticides. The topics discussed in this lecture include the following: carbamate insecticides, organochlorine insecticides, naturally occurring insecticides, and herbicides.

http://www.sfei.org/rmp/Scientific_Publications/Sediment_Toxicity_1997/ sedtox.html This site contains a report on the relationship between sediment toxicity and contamination in San Francisco Bay, sponsored by the San Francisco Estuary Institute (SFEI). The report was completed in December 1997 and is preceded on the page by the table of contents. The most relevant sections for my research are the Abstract, Introduction, Patterns in Sediment Contamination, Patterns in Sediment Toxicity, and Conclusions.

http://www.chem.unep.ch/pops/ The United Nations Environment Programme runs this website; the specific address listed here is dedicated to persistent organic pollutants (POPs). This webpage contains links to the Stockholm Convention on POPs (a global treaty in the making on protecting human health and the environment from persistent organic pollutants), POPs related GEF (Global Environmental Facility) Projects, proceedings, reports and documents, and information on POPs, their alternatives, and alternative approaches. The internal link to information on POPs contains a fact sheet on dioxins, regulatory actions and guidelines, and case studies.

Http://www.rtk.net/ Although this site is not a chemistry site I feel that it is very important for any dedicated chemist that is concerned with the environmental effects of their line of work. This is the site for the "right to know network." Through this site you can access what kind of toxic pollution is happening in your area and who is responsible for it.

http://www.emcentre.com/unepweb/tec_case/chemical_24/house/casestudy.shtml This is a really great site for information about chemical pollution incidences. It gives case studies of places around the world where chemical pollution has occurred giving the year, place, background information, what has being done in terms of clean up, economic and environmental concerns, constraints on the project and contact information.

http://ag.ansc.purdue.edu/il-in-sg/helm/health.htm This website is operated by Purdue University. The site is devoted to discussing the problems posed to human health by contaminated waterways and fisheries, particularly in southern Lake Michigan. The University is developing plans for several extensive studies and the site outlines what scientists already know and what they hope to find out through the research.

http://pops.gpa.unep.org/ This website is operated by the United Nations Environment Programme. The site is mainly concerned with Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPS). The site discusses the chemistry of POPS, their origins, and some health effects on humans. It also contains a graph, charting the names of different pesticides, their industrial chemical products, and unwanted by-products.

http://www.marietta.edu/~biol/102/2bioma95.html This website contains information from the textbooks Biology and Conservation Biology, written by Sylvia S. Mader. The site deals mainly with bioaccumulation and biomagnification. It covers subjects such as the half-life of DDT and its bioaccumulation and biomagnification. It also lists other substances such as PCBs, PAHs, cyanide and selenium. In this list it illustrates the uses and problems with using these metals and chemicals.

http://www.great-lakes.net/humanhealth/drink/index.html This website is operated by the US EPA. It deals mainly with the Great Lakes region and human health with regards to drinking water, recreational water, fish consumption, as well as other issues. The site lists the chemical issues on a lake-by-lake basis. It also covers which substances are of concern, their sources, and effects.

http://www.des.state.nh.us/factsheets/ard/ard-1.htm This website is operated by the New Hampshire Dept. of Environmental Services. The site is concerned mainly with information about the effects on human health and the environment from toxic air pollutants. The site also discusses how to protect human and environmental health from these pollutants.

http://www.worldwildlife.org/toxics/progareas/ed/ This is the World Wildlife Foundation's website on endocrine disruptors. It provides a basic background of endocrine disruptors and their effects on humans and the environment.

http://www.ourstolenfuture.org/ Our Stolen Future is a book that explores the emerging science of endocrine disruption: how some synthetic chemicals interfere with the ways that hormones work in humans and wildlife. The websites provides updated information on endocrine disruptors and cutting edge scientific evidence. They also have links to their critics' websites.

http://www.psr.org/endofs.htm This is the Physicians for Social Responsibility's FAQ website on endocrine disruptors. They also provide information on activism and links to various EPA sites pertaining to endocrine disruption.

http://www.chlorophiles-usa.org/ This site is pretty entertaining. CHLOROPHILES-USA is a grass-roots, not-for-profit group dedicated to spread the "truth" about chlorine and polyvinyl chlorine in benefiting people. Their agenda? "We are scientists, engineers, technicians and citizens who believe that lies, half- truths and other forms of disinformation put forth by zealot environmentalists with questionable agenda must be countered by facts and truths directly addressing the " mind bombs " put forth in an uninformed effort to " sunset " chlorine and all products incorporating this vital element." Nice.

http://www.som.tulane.edu/cbr/ecme/eehome/default.html This site is run by the Center for Environmental Research of Tulane and Xavier Universities. The site offers information on Environmental Estrogens and other hormone. They also provide numerous links, updates, recent articles, and lots of pertinent information.

http://website.lineone.net/~mwarhurst/ This page provides an introduction to the effects of hormone disrupting chemicals on man and the environment, and the response of Governments and industry to this problem. It discusses suspect chemicals, the role of the endocrine system, and ways of taking action.

http://www.ccaej.org/projects/endocrine.htm This is the endocrine disruptor site of the Center for Community Action and Environmental Justice. This page has a lot of valuable information on the three types of endocrine disruptors: mimics, blocker, and triggers. There is also an extensive list of endocrine disrupting chemicals: herbicides and fungicides, insecticides, nematocides, and industrial chemicals.

http://www.chej.org/ This is the homepage for the Center for Health, Environment, and Justice. CHEJ is the only national environmental organization founded and led by grassroots leaders. They are involved in community-based activism. Cureently, they are working on stopping dioxin exposure.

http://www.cleanupge.org/ The slogan of this site is "GE has taken good thing from our lives." This site is full of information about GE's hazardous environmental record. It discusses the 1.3 million pounds of PCB's dropped into the Hudson River by GE and the negative after-effects of this horrific incident.

http://www.iatp.org/edrc/ This site is run by the Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy. Their goal is to keep industrial pollution out of the food system. It provides information on the hazards of lead, cadmium, mercury, arsenic, and dioxins, and how they get into fertilizer. They also discuss hormone disruptors and sewage sludge.

http://www.who.int/pcs/index.htm This is the site of the International Programme on Chemical Safety. It provides a whole lot of information on almost anything you could have questions about.

http://www.mindfully.org/Pesticide/2002/pesticide2002.htm This site contains numerous articles from 2002 on pesticides, toxins, and endocrine disruptors. A very useful site for current information. There are also links to prior articles dealing with these subjects.

http://www.iupac.org/dhtml_home.html This is the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. It includes a large base of information on anything related to chemistry. A very useful site.

http://www.ewg.org/pub/home/reports/beautysecrets/pr.html This site informs us of all the nasty toxins, especially DBP, contained in cosmetic make-ups. DBP is dibutyl phthalate, a chemical coming under growing scientific scrutiny because of high levels found in reproductive age women and possible risks of birth defects.

http://www.ecologic-ipm.com/menu.html This site deals with the Food Quality and Protection Act of 1996. It contains various viewpoints, congressional committee reports, and assorted other documents pertaining to pesticide levels in food.

http://www.wwf.ca/satellite/hormone-disruptors/ This is WWF Canada's web guide to endocrine disrupting chemicals. There is scientific information, issue and actions, and a variety of other resources.

http://www.chem-tox.com/infertility Major articles on infertility causes, including household chemicals. Also includes graphs on infertility rates and percentages and causes of incrased fertility by indoor or household toxins.

http://www.Junkscience.com/news/euroendo.html An environmental study finds that insufficient evidence exists to link exposure to certain industrial chemicals to effects in the human endocrine system. Their findings would seem to bolster EPA's belief that more data is needed before action can be taken on regulating these chemicals. The EPA released a policy, which calls for an increased amount of research into the effects of industrial chemicals on the human endocrine system. The problem with this site is that it's from 1997 and I don't know what the EPA has done since then because there is no follow up page that I can find.

http://www.ecologic-ipm.com/endocrin.html In sum, the problem of endocrine disrupting chemicals seems to be more than apparent, but it appears that even the wealthiest nations in the world haven't the capacity to do the necessary scientific research. This is a serious problem because the danger of irreversible damage is real. So in light of the fact that we don't know all the harmful chemicals we must watch our exposure to things that we might consider to be harmful to our health.

http://www.enn.com/news/enn-stories/2000/10/10282000/endodisrupt_39491.asp This website talks about how British scientists discovered in the Thames river several fish that had the genetic code to be a male but in fact grew up to be females. Then they go on to say this was caused by environmental contaminants now known as endocrine disruptors. Then they go on to talk about what endocrine disruptors are and how they affect plants, animals and humans. They kind of sum it up by saying that there needs to be facilities in every country where these chemicals can be tested.

http://www.unc.edu/~pbermel/ed/ This site talks more in depth about endocrine disruptors and what they are and what they do as well as a couple of studies done including the study of the lake Apopka alligators. It has a slide show on biological effects and implications and is a pretty informative site dealing with the broader sense of endocrine disruption.

http://www.fb.org/issues/analysis/Triazine_Update.html Talks about the use of Triazine and atrazine as a pesticide and how the EPA is trying to ban its use. The EPA is saying there are much safer chemicals than either of the two. But a lot of testing has been done on these chemicals and the results show us that they are safe and not bad for our health. In all atrazine is now the most widely and thoroughly tested product ever used in crop protection, and will continue to be used by farmers across the U.S.

http://www.niehs.nih.gov/external/faq/endisrp.htm This site deals with estrogen endocrine disruptors in the environment and how they affect your health and the threats that they pose. It simply asks the question "What is all the talk I'm hearing about endocrine disruptors in the environment?" And then it goes on to answer in detail.

http://www.pesticidesafety.uiuc.edu/newsletter/ipr8-96/endocrine.html This site is about endocrine disrupting pesticides and some reasons for worry. It talks about being at risk for extinction as well as alarmingly dropping rates of sperm count in males. It says we should take steps to ban these chemicals without waiting for research to be complete because it's crucial that we don't come in contact with certain substances.

http://www.pyr.ec.gc.ca/wildlife/migratory/endocrine_e.htm Deals with endocrine disrupting chemicals, what are they and what do they do. Talks about effects found on the wildlife in Canada like deformities and impaired reproduction and development. There was a really striking one that caught my eye that said they found abnormal reproduction in snails exposed to substances applied to exteriors of ships.

http://www.e-hormone-kit.com/Pdf%20Files/Data/Ehormone2000.pdf A rather lengthy site dealing with endocrine disruption and practically everything having to do with it. It talks about wildlife studies and chemical analysis along with an abstract and plenty of graphs and charts dealing with chemicals and such.

http://www.sdk.co.jp/shodex/english/dc090402.htm This site is about Bisphenol A and how to clean it up. It gives two graphs and is somewhat useful in understanding this chemical and its effects.

http://www.env.go.jp/en/pol/speed98/sp98.html This site is by SPEED, Strategic Programs on Environmental Endocrine Disruptors. Talks about Exogenous endocrine disruptors and what they are and do. Also has tables and figures and links that you can go to find more info. What's nice about this site is that you can write with questions or concerns to the environmental health and safety division which is something I did not come across in all my research.

Links to Ozone studies and Volcanic information

Links to Ozone studies and Volcanic information

http://www.unep.ch/ozone/index-en.shtml United Nations Environment Programme, Ozone Secretariat
Online copies of all relevant treaties, agreements and protocols concerning ozone, acess to on-line book store with

121 publications related to ozone.

http://www.oar.noaa.gov/atmosphere/atmos_al.html Aeronomy Laboratory. Links to 10 different NOAA research labs conducting research on awide variety of climate issues including the aeronomy lab which is researching stratospheric ozone depletion, tropospheric ozone pollution, data sets on tropical winds and mass spec particle analysis, research on intercontinental transport of manmade pollution.

This website is for the climate prediction center, a branch of NOAA. It includes background information about ozone depletion, what's happening currently, where their data comes from and links to related websites.

http://www.al.noaa.gov/WWWHD/pubdocs/StratO3.html "Stratospheric Ozone Depletion (Antarctic, Arctic, and Global" (NOAA Aeronomy Laboratory). This site discusses past and recent research efforts at their lab in Antarctica. This site concentrates more on the process and goals of the research than the chemistry or concepts.

http://www.ozonelayer.noaa.gov The National Oceanic And Atmospheric Administration website for oceanic and atmospheric information. The NOAA constantly monitors and researches stratospheric ozone by using satellite, airborne, and ground-based systems. This section of their site provides information on current and historical stratospheric ozone and climate data. You can also learn about the science of ozone, read recent ozone-related press reports, and get some answers to frequently asked questions.

http://www.cmdl.noaa.gov/noah/flask/hcfc.html This website is operated by NOAA and the Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory in Boulder, CO. The information on this site deals mainly with HCFCs, in regard to what they actually are and basic information on how they work as an ozone depleting species. The site also contains data and graphs concerning the increases in concentrations of selected HCFCs.

http://www.cmdl.noaa.gov/info/ozone_anim.html The animation (which has a fairly long download time) shows the development of stratospheric temperatures as well as the ozone hole at the South pole for 1999. The site continues with an explanation of the Ozone hole and why there isn't one over North America. In the text regarding the lack of an actual hole over the United States the a dialogue regarding how volcanoes also impact ozone depletion is started. It is interesting to see a when not if contingency added to this topic.

http://www.cmdl.noaa.gov/ozwv/ozsondes/spo/ozone_anim2000.html "South Pole Ozone Hole" (Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory). This website features an animation of developing stratospheric conditions with ozone and temperature graphs from July until the present at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station. There is also a section that discusses why ozone depletion is so much more of a problem over Antarctica than anywhere else.

http://remus.jpl.nasa.gov Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Primary research focus of the JPL is on polar stratospheric clouds and ozone. Page has links to extensive publications list of research papers on this and related issues. Also has downlable spectrscopic data on several hundred molecules, numerous links to related sites.

http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2000/ast02oct_1.htm Peering into the Ozone Hole. This is a NASA website dedicated to the Ozone Hole. This site has links to some of the articles released in 2000 and a good number of images of ozone levels in the stratosphere at varying times of the year. You can read an overall- easy to understand- summary of the goings on of ozone depletion cycles here. There is also a link to the Montreal Protocol Agreement, which I found so interesting I also linked it below.

http://www.wmo.ch World Metereological Organization. Site contains WMO antarctica Ozone Bulletin, ozone data maps for N. America, links to TVOS satellite images, ozone mapping spectrometer, Antarctic ozone and temperature cross sections and animation of the ozone hole at the S. Pole.

http://www.wmo.ch/web/arep/nhoz.html Provides a list of daily ozone maps in N. America.

http://www.knmi.nl/gome_fd Royal Netherlands Metereological Institute, GOME Fast Delivery Service
Provides access to near-real time data on ozone columns, stratospheric ozone profiles, clear sky UV indices and assimilated global ozone maps from GOME data. Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) is an instrument aboard the ERS-2 (European Remote Sensing) satellite, launched by the European Space Agency (ESA) in 1995. ESA uses four ground stations for downlinking ERS-2 data; they are located in Kiruna (Sweden), Gatineau (Canada), Prince Albert (Canada) and Maspalomas (Spain). GOME is a spectrometer, which means that it measures Earthshine spectra, that is: the sunlight which is reflected back into space by molecules in the atmosphere and by the surface. The instrument also measures the solar spectrum directly.

http://www-das.uwyo.edu/research.htm University of Wyoming Atmospheric Science web page
This is the homepage for the Atmospheric Science department of the University of Wyoming. Professor Terry Deshler conducts research on the ozone layer using ballonborne instruments. Most of the research has to do with polar stratospheric clouds in the Artic and Antarctic. You can read about this research under Deshler in the research section of the web page.

http://www.atm.ch.cam.ac.uk/tour/ The Ozone Hole Tour-take a tour of the Yahoo! wesite of the week. The centre for atmospheric science has put together a website that takes you through information on The Discovery of the Ozone Hole, Recent Ozone Loss over Antarctica, The Science of the Ozone Hole, and the Latest Ozone Hole Research at Cambridge.

http://www.atm.ch.cam.ac.uk/ This is the University of Cambridge's Center for Atmospheric Science web sight. It has many links to other information sources. It also has a picture gallery and a job announcements page. There is an article at this sight about the upcoming European Symposium on Stratospheric Ozone to be held in September of 2002.

http://www.usatoday.com/weather/wozone0.htm This is an article from usatoday that talks about ozone depletion and how its confused with climate change. It has a lot of informative sites that you can go to and it also talks briefly about reduction in ozone depleting substances as well as info from the usatoday weather book.

http://www.safeclimate.net/newsandlibrary/article_detail.php?id=29 Congressmen argue with scientific research on climate and ozone polices with scientists and organizations like the WMO. It made me angry to read how some people in congress even debate whether there really is an ozone problem to begin with in the first place. It just goes to show how naive people really are.

http://www.coaleducation.org/issues/deplet.htm This site is all about the depletion of the ozone layer. It talks about the ozone layer in general and then goes into more detail about CFC's as well as the problems we are facing over both poles. Also there are supposedly going to be 200,000 extra skin cancer deaths by the year 2050 if things keep going the way they are. Lastly they talk about seeking substitutes and that the WMO has just released evidence that says the damage is much worse than we thought and it extends into the summer months, which is a problem because more people are outside during the summer exposing them to more UV-B rays.

http://www.enviro.org/artozne2.html It is an article from 1996 saying that the hole over the Antarctica is the worse it's ever been and is at record size. They said in September and October that year it peeked at 7.7 million square miles but has gone down to 6.9 million square miles.

http://www.ucar.edu/learn/1_6_1.htm The title is called Stratospheric Ozone, the Protector and it is an intense site dealing with all aspects of ozone. It talks about the ozone's chemical makeup and how they interact with CFC's. It has charts and models of how these things work as well as pictures that help you understand what happens when certain chemicals interact with O3. It also has animation that shows you the destruction of ozone by a chlorine atom as well as activities you can go and do.

http://seawifs.gsfcnasa.gov/OCEAN_PLANET/HTMLperil_ozone_depletion.html I liked this web site because right off the bat it breaks down the ozone hole problem and many confusions that come along with the chemistry involved. Many people believe that the ozone itself is the problem and not the lack of ozone. The article then carefully explains CFC's and what they are and the chemical problems they produce.

http://Visibleearth.nasa.gov/ This site is very neat and is one of the reasons I think the ozone hole is a prolem many people are going to get into and deal with. The site allows you to get up to date information on the ozone hole and since we can get images of the actual hole the problem is able to be seen visually. I believe the images have an immense impact on people. The site also has links to TOMS which is the current images of the hole.

http://www.nas.nasa.gov/About/Education/Ozone/ This is a resource file sponsored by NASA that includes phone and e-mail contact information for ozone researchers, a brief glossary of terms and a summary of the effects of stratospheric ozone depletion.

http://www.toms.gsfc.nasa.gov/ This is NASA's new official website of information, data, and images from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instruments. There are several different satellite images to choose from, showing up to date images of ozone concentrations in the stratosphere.

http://www.nilu.no/projects/nadir/o3hole/ This web site has links to very reputable studies and colleges that have volumes of information and hard numbers and statistics on the ozone hole. The site gives you a straightforward background and then gives you links for exploration into the current information coming in.

http://www.riverdeep.net/current/2000/09/091300ozonehole.jhtml This is a good article to summarize the ozone hole since its discovery in 1970. The site talks to the common persons understanding of chemistry and talks of how the depletion of this ozone shield will have very real effects on most people throughout the world. It also explains about the increase in UV-B rays and how it will cause a rise in skin cancer.

http://abcnews.go.com/sections/science/DailyNews/ozone_city001005.html I liked this article because it highlights how vague the mainstream media likes to address the ozone hole or any other environmental problem. They choose to only tell the information that has happened but not the consequences or solutions to these problems. The story is approached from a sensationalist point of view that talks about this ozone hole coming to get these people like the ozone hole is the enemy and not our own pollution. The story highlights that a huge population was exposed to the hole but didn't actually address how it affected them.

http://www.solcomhouse.com/OzoneHole.htm A wonderful and colorful site is in store at this web address. The images of the ozone hole over the Antarctica are vivid while the step by step explanation and history of the ozone hole keys readers into the problem right away. The site encompasses more related subjects to the ozone hole then any other I browsed and goes into how each aspect of the environment will be affected.

http://www.ozone.fmi.fi/o3group/o3home.html This site portrays interesting site maps of Finland uv maps, ozone mapping spectrometer links, and research information, and monitoring stations for 4 sites in Finland monitoring uv light. Pretty interesting.

http://www.eco-action.org/dt/krill.html This site lists some other effects of harmful uv light uv b light on inhabitants of the polar region such as krill. there is a nice picture of krill, other links that show other pankton - even such things at kangaroos being affected by uvb light.
Pretty interesting on how food webs are affected.

http://www.niwa.cri.nz/ NIWA Homepage.This is the New Zealand's "National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research" homepage. There is a link to an Atmosphere and Climate page that has a lot of information on the Ozone problem including some Antarctic research. There is also information on New Zealand's Climate.

http://www.niwa.cri.nz/pubs/mr/archive/2000-10-02-1 This site details the low measurements that were recorded on October 2, 2000 for the ozone hole, along with a link that will forward you to a map of the ozone hole. the links on this site will give you information on where to buy publications. there is also the telephone number of the Scott Base in Antartica where this article comes from. If you want to contact the person directly about ozone in the artic, here is the telephone number.

http://katipo.niwa.cri.nz/lauder/ NIWA at Lauder Home Page
NIWA is New Zealand's "National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research". One of their research stations is located in Lauder on the South Island of New Zealand. Research focuses on understanding the physics and chemistry of the middle atmosphere. This includes ozone depletion, chemical modeling of the atmosphere, measurement of surface UV, modeling of radiative transfer through the atmosphere and at the surface, and measurement of trace chemical species in the atmosphere.

http://www.gcrio.org/ocp96/hilitec5.html Five ozone abstracts are listed here along with the complete references to look up the papers they came from. They involve:
Increases In UV Radiation Confirmed To Be An Important Public Health Problem;
Ice Cover In The Antarctic May Protect Phytoplankton From Adverse Impacts Of Increased Uvb: Ozone Depletors And Their Substitutes Broken Down By Soil Microbes; Some Fish Found To Be Especially Tolerant To Increases In Uv Radiation; 1994 Science Assessment On Ozone Depletion Published. If you are looking for a few research sources this might be a good find. LInks here list students and other items of interest.

http://eospso.gsfc.nasa.gov/eos_observ/7_8_96/p29.html This link is from a satellite carrying NASA Scatterometer and total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer instruments designed to measure global ocean surface winds, and atomospheric ozone content as part of an international climate change research project. I thought it was interesting

http://www.epa.gov/ozone/science/hole/holehome.html EPA Site on the Ozone Hole
This is the EPA's site on the ozone hole. This specific site deals with the Antarctic ozone hole and has a satellite map of the hole. There are links to pages describing ozone chemistry, ozone depletion over the world, and U.S. regulations.

This is an article from the journal Science News announcing new evidence that certain ectomycorrhizal fungi emit ozone destroying methyl halides into the atmosphere. Researchers examined four different types of soil fungi and found that all emitted trace amounts into the atmosphere. These soil fungi are a natural example of ozone destroyers.
http://sedac.ciesin.org/ozone/docs/UNEPsummary96.html This site is from the United Nations Protocol on substances that deplete the Ozone hole. Within this site are sections for; Ozone and UV Changes, Health Effects, Effects on Terrestrial Ecosystems, Effects on Aquatic Ecosystems , Effects on Biogeochemical Cycles , Effects on Air Quality, Materials Damage , Future Effects Studies, Panel Members and Representatives. It comes from 1996.chemforlife.org

http://www.ciesin.org/TG/OZ/oz-home.html This website is operated by Columbia University in NYC. This site is broken into 5 different sections. The first is an overview of the issues surrounding ozone depletion. The other four sub-sections cover key topics in detail regarding the ozone issue. The topics are: CFCs and ozone depletion, Related health effects from increased exposure to UV-B radiation, Environmental effects of ozone depletion, and Policies and Responses to ozone depletion.

http://www.ciesin.org/TG/OZ/oz-net.html "Ozone Depletion and Global Environmental Change" is a nice succinct site with a bunch of links to sites with information about international environmental problems and policies designed to deal with them. Also gives a list of texts and documents that would be useful to those researching the international reaction to ozone depletion.

http://www.ciesin.org/TG/HH/ozhlthhm.html This site is called "Health Effects From Increased Exposure to Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) Radiation due to Stratospheric Ozone Depletion" and the title says it all. It has 5 good links to information on what ozone depletion does to biological activity, particularly humans. It covers everything from skin cancer to Ocular damage to immune system suppression.

http://phoenix.liunet.edu/~divenere/LI_Env/uvr.htm This site provides a good overview of info on UV rays and their relationship to ozone depletion. It alsao explains the UV scale and tells how each of the different levels of UV can effect human health, especially in relation to sunburning.

http://www.environment.govt.nz/ozone/ This site from the New Zealand government gives an overview of the problems surrounding ozone depletion. It also provides some good concise information about the chemicals that cause ozone depletion and their levels over places in Tasmania and Antarctica.

http://whales.greenpeace.org/environment/ozone.html This site gives a little info on the effects of the increasing ozone hole on wildlife, especially whales. These effects include a disruption of the photoplankton levels and cancer from the UV radiation.

http://www.life.ca/nl/52/lakes.html This article is good because it demonstrates how the problems of global warming, acid rain and ozone depletion are interrelated. This is a good example of the relationship[ of these three phenomenon from the boreal lakes of eastern Canada.

http://www.sepp.org/ozone/ozonefranklin.html This article "The Ozone-CFC Debacle: Hasty Action, Shaky Science" by S. Fred Singer was published in Technology: Journal of The Franklin Institute, and attempts to pick apart the evidence that CFC's cause ozone, claiming that the 1995 phase out is a hasty gesture and will hurt the economy more than it helps health. He has some decent points, but half of his references are to things that he wrote, so who knows how accurate his info is. But its an interesting article and is a good representation of the "other side".

http://www.sepp.org/ozone/ozone.html This is an awesome site, it has over 25 links to various articles surrounding the ozone-CFC debate and other discussions among scientists about the issue. It is very comprehensive and would be an excellent resource for anyone looking for info on CFCs and the controversies thereof.

http://lap.physics.auth.gr/ozonemaps/ This is the homepage for the WMO Ozone Mapping Centre. It has the latest "maps" of the ozone layer over the Northern Hemisphere, as recent as yesterday, as well as a nice archive with maps over the past few years, and a ton of links to sites about ozone and its depletion.

http://www.spacedaily.com/news/ozone-01e.html This is an article from SpaceDaily called "Scientists Confirm: North Pole Ozone Hole Trigger" discusses the possibiltiy and reasoning of an ozone hole over the North Pole. It also has some neat pictures detailing ozone depletion in that area.

http://www.uaf.edu/chem/simpson/strat/ozone_map.html On this site you can enter any date, as late as Dec of last year, (it says yesterday but it doesn't even go up to 2002) and it will give you the TOMS picture of the North Pole with color-coded ozone info for that day.

http://www.solcomhouse.com/OzoneHole.htm Solcom House. Solcomhouse is a combination of the words: Solar Computer House. Their goal is to provide the people of the world housing that is in sync and harmony with the environment. Their website provides volumes of information on numerous environmental and world issues such as the ozone hole. This portion of the site talks about the forming and discovery of the ozone hole over Antarctica. They go on to explain the consequences of ozone depletion on humans, other species, and ecosystems. One cool thing about this website is all the up to date news links they have about ozone and the ozone hole.

http://www.geocities.com/RainForest/Vines/4030/index.html Another neat site on ozone depletion. Has links to a variety of pages with information on everything from CFCs to Volcanoes to books one can buy about ozone. Its a geo-site and doesn't have much sourcing of information, so I don't know how accurate it is, but it looks good. It has a nice timeline of ozone events.

http://www.geocities.com/SunsetStrip/1483/ozone.html The Cosmic Ray Deflection Society Of North America. This site is put out by The Cosmic Ray Deflection Society Of North America. Here they provide you with information about ozone, the ozone hole, and the deadly rays coming through it. Information about the highest cosmic ray ever recorded can be found on this website. their thoughts on what can be done to stop ozone depletion and mend the ozone hole is on the site too. This is an interesting society of people who have a lot to say, I recommend reading what they have to say.

http://www.antarctica.ac.uk/Key_Topics/The_Ozone_Hole/index.html British Antarctic Survey. This website provides great information about ozone and the ozone hole. There are terrific sections on climate change, evolution on the geosphere, and ozone holes of the future. The British Antarctic Survey team provides comprehensive information for everyone on ozone. Good links and news updates too.

http://environment.about.com/cs/ozone This website contains information about many different pressing environmental issues. Ozone depletion is one of the selections. The site offers information on an intermediate level about the chemistry and workings of ozone depletion and the substances involved. It also offers an abridged version of the scientific assessment of ozone depletion by the World Meteorological Organization.

http://environment.about.com/library/weekly/blozone5.htm This site was posted in 2001, but the scientific information seems to be current only through 1998. It explains what is happening to the levels of the different ozone-depleting gases. Also, it gives information about when recovery is expected, and what factors may play into that. Their data has also shown that the replacements for CFCs can already be seen in the troposphere and lower stratosphere.

http://www.europa.ev.int/comm/environment/ozone discusses current research techniques going on and that previously took place in the 1990's mostly. Has a really cool list on ozone depleteing substances and their ozone-depleteing potential.

http://www.state.ri.us/dem/programs/benviron/air/ozone.html I am from Rhode Island so that is why I liked this one. But also has daily report on air quality regarding ozone levels set up in three diffent sites. Has info on dangers in your home and what not to do.

http://www.greenpeace.org/~ozone Less scientific than radical environmentalist crazyness; but nonetheless very interesting. Scientists should now how the public feels. Definitely check out the slide show! Has a decent links page. If anything it gets you all revved up to stop the depletion of ozone.

http://oz.physat.uga.edu/ This website is operated by the University of Georgia. This site is dedicated to information about the National UV Monitoring Center located at the University of Georgia. The Center operates high spectral resolution spectroradiometers throughout the US. This equipment measures full sky UV-B and UV-A spectral flux. With this information, absolute irradiance and total column ozone concentrations are calculated.

http://www.awi-bremerhaven.de/MET/Neumayer/ozone.html This website is operated by the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, a leading German institute established as a public foundation in 1980. Since March 1981, members of this group have collected data both in the Antarctic, currently at Neumayer station, and in the Arctic, at Koldewey Station. In addition to taking various meteorological measurements, the foundation also uses RS80 radiosondes in helium balloons to conduct upper air ozone soundings. Both stations also measure various types of surface radiation using pyrgeometers. Numerous types of useful data, graphs and photographs are available here including a photo of a pyrgeometer and and a graph of ozone concentration measured in nanobars for 2002.

http://afeas.org/origin.html This website addresses the two programs set up by the chemical industry to look at alternatives for CFCs. These are the Alternative Fluorocarbons Environmental Acceptability Study (AFEAS) and the Programme for Alternative Fluorocarbon Toxicity Testing (PAFT). These programs were setup to see what alternative chemical compounds would work for applications that use CFCs, and then looked at what the effects of those alternative compounds would be on the environment and on human health. There conclusion was to switch to HFCs and to HCFCs so that those chemicals could have a sink while still in the troposphere. This site does not in detail address the adverse effects of these alternative chemicals.

http://www.epa.gov/ozone/mbr/mbrqa.html#q4 This website gives a comprehensive overview of Methyl Bromide. That is, what it is used for, and what its potential is for the destruction of ozone. This website also names some of the alternatives to Methyl Bromide as well as when it is scheduled to be phased out and by how much according to the Montreal Protocol.

http://www.epa.gov/ozone/science/aerosol.html Explains how aerosols from volcanoes rarely get into the stratosphere and when they do their life is significantly shorter than anthropogenic ozone destroyers such as CFCs. Volcanic aerosols just increase the rate at which Chlorine can break ozone molecules. There is also a graph showing the amount of aerosols that reached the stratosphere which were released during the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in 1991 and how long it took for those aerosols to get out of the stratosphere.

http://www.epa.gov/ozone/science/volcano.html This page gives a short explanation of how volcanoes affect ozone. Though it has widely been claimed that volcanoes and the ocean put a lot of ozone depleting chlorine into the air, it has not stood up to scientific experiments. Though volcanoes emit HCl, they are rarely powerful enough to get into the lower stratosphere. Also, HCl is water soluble and most of it is rained out in the troposphere. In addition volcanoes give off enough steam that most of the HCl is taken care of at the time of eruption. Volcanoes occasionally put aerosols into the stratosphere, which provide a surface for Cl to destroy ozone on, but these aerosols do not stay in the stratosphere for long. Scientists have accounted for all the Cl in the stratosphere and have found that volcanoes are responsible for only 3% of it. This is a tiny amount compared to all of the anthropogenic sources. Also, there has not been very much volcanic activity during the most deleterious time for the ozone in the stratosphere.

Details: This site does a basic job of explaining ozone measurement. Such as Dobson Units and TOMS satellites. This site also connects to other sites such as what is to be done about ozone depletion and sources of destroyers. All sites have very nice pictures which go a long way in describing ozone. It gives something tangible to something less that concrete.

http://www.shsu.edu/~chemistry/ESC440/PSC.html Has GIF illustrations included as explanation of some basic chemical reactions regarding ozone depletion by polar stratospheric clouds. An explanation of the polar vortex is included (something we touched upon in class but never fully discussed). There is also an interesting link to an animated explanation of James Lovelace's electron capture detector. The animation is fairly old but nicely put and quite elegant.

http://www.unep.org/ozone/mont_t.shtml 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. This is the actual agreement of countries to begin control of ozone depleting substances. The agreement was drawn up in 1987 and put into effect in 1988; this site includes subsequent adjustments and amendments. Includes lists of ozone depleting substances, ozone depleting potential, and conditions of meetings, reporting, restrictions, and plans for future control.

http://www.nerc-bas.ac.uk/public/icd/jds/ozone/ozpamw7.htm The Antarctic ozone hole by Jonathan Shanklin. This is a site that is a "pamphlet" explaining how the ozone hole forms, including links to understanding many of the terms used to describe ozone, and methods of analysis and obtaining atmospheric data. Easy to understand, and describes some of the different locations of research and techniques of monitoring ozone throughout the world.

http://www.enn.com/enn-news-archive/1999/11/112599/amission_7477.asp ENN stands for Environmental News Network, an online publication founded in 1993, working to educate people about international environmental issues by presenting "information from all sides so our users can make their own decisions." The page of particular interest for the environmental chemist is an article titled "Huge Arctic Ozone Study Begins" written in November 1999. The Arctic ozone study is a coalition of scientists from around the world working to measure levels of and changes in ozone in the winter of 1999. The project is titled the SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE). Within the text, color photographs include the following: a polar stratospheric cloud in the Arctic and a balloon similar to those used in the SOLVE study. The project is sponsored by NASA and joins with the European Commission's Third European Stratospheric Experiment on Ozone.

http://www.remtec.net/ RemTec International is an international corporation specializing in recycling various Halons, HFCs, CFCs, HCFCs, Freon, and other refrigerant gases. The site contains a number of internal links to news stories involving RemTec such as their selling of patented equipment to aid in China's halon phase-out, signing of an exclusive contract with Norway's National Halon Bank, reclaiming of halons at a General Motors Tech Center, and opening of a technical assistance office in Europe. RemTec International provides reclamation services and storage equipment for refrigerant gases, as well as recycling fire protection systems and separating combined refrigerant gases.


http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Hazards/NRC_Definitions/volcanic_gas.html This site lists what gasses are emitted from volcanoes, and a few of what the potential effects of those gases could be. Within 10 km of the vent, gases could hurt or kill plants and animals. Acids and ammonia in the gases can damage eyes and respiratory systems. The primary gas released is steam, followed by C02. This CO2 is heavier than air and can stay in depressions of the land and kill man and beast alike.

http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Imgs/Jpg/Projects/Emissions/fsheet_fig1.jpg This drawing shows what the significant gases are that are released from a volcanic eruption. It also shows what happens to those gases in the atmosphere.

http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Projects/Emissions/vgas_fsheet.html This page describes why volcanoes are studied. The answer being that we might be able to tell more when eruptions will happen, and what the environmental effects might be. It speaks of the negative effects of the volcanic emissions on plants and animals and people such as suffocation, and respiratory ailments. It also mentions acid rain as a product of the HCl, and what affects that has on plant life and on leeching heavy metals into drinking water. This page also describes how volcanic gases are studied. Gases can be captured by hand at or near the vent, and they can also be picked up with an instrument flown behind an airplane. They also briefly discussed new remote sensors that can be dangerous places gathering data and sending it via radio waves.

http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/gsc/pacific/vancouver/volcanoes/05_7_haz_e.php This is the natural resources page of Canada. It says that from the release of SO2 gas and steam there can be considerable acid rain after a volcanic eruption. The sulfur dioxide can also prove to be irritating or lethal in the gas form. Intense acid rain can collect in drinking water cisterns and leech heavy metals into them. Acid rain also has the potential to severely damage crops and wetlands.

http://www.geol.ucsb.edu/~fisher/gas.htm This page explores the different gasses that are emitted from volcanoes and what effects they have on the environment. It says that sulfate aerosols could have a cooling effect on the average temperature of the earth by reflecting incoming solar radiation. These same particles also play a role in forming acid rain. Not to fear, for these aerosols do not stay in the atmosphere for a really long time.

http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Projects/Emissions/framework.html This is the page that outlines and has links to the various aspects of the USGS's volcanic emissions and global change project. It describes their goals, what they are doing, and what they are finding. One of the most interesting things briefly touched on with this page is the notion of trying to "scrub" volcanoes with water to make the volcanoes emissions less hazardous.

http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Projects/Emissions/Reports/Spurr/spurr_b2139_abs.html Interested by the prospect of the scrubbing volcanoes as mentioned above I found this page. This explains that during the 1992 eruption of Mount Spurr in Alaska SO2 scrubbing was successful for all but the 3 explosive events. Negligible SO2 was coming out right before and after these explosive events with SO2 water scrubbing. This doesn't explain exactly how the scrubbing was done, but I am interested.

http://www.agu.org/sci_soc/eosvarekamp.html This page has a great quantity of information. Specifically, it addresses lakes found in volcanic calderas. There can be significant amounts of CO2 dissolved in the bottom of some lakes as there was in Cameroon 15 years ago. When the CO2 surfaced it spread out over the nearby village and killed a lot of people. Volcanoes can also make their lakes very acidic and this can alter the geochemistry of the area much more quickly than it would usually happen.

http://www.solcomhouse.com/yellowstone.htm At the bottom of the page under University of Wisconsin press release there is pertinent information regarding the supervolcano under Yellowstone. Studying the quartz and zircon in the past ash samples, geologists and chemists get an idea of what the hot spot process is like, and just how much ash is produced and where it goes. Evidence suggests that there could be another major eruption from this source in the next 100,000-1,000,000 years. However, it will likely be smaller than the previous.

http://wlapwww.gov.bc.ca/wat/wq/BCguidelines/selenium/report2c_v3-02.htm Gives the basics of Selenium. Its major source in the environment is from volcanoes 100,000-1,800,000 kg/a.

http://www.eman-rese.ca/eman/reports/meetings/mercury/part3.html This is a page that describes some of the chemicals and chemical processes and origins that affect Canada. They have determined that only 3% mercury deposition can be attributed to volcanoes.